Nowadays, translation plays an important role in life. We do communication in daily life. Through translation, people are able to communicate in this multilingual world. It can help people share information, knowledge, ideas, and lots of things to each other. Not only exchanging information, translation enables people to exchange cultures as well. We can learn cultures from other countries in many ways. By watching movies, reading books, or even talking to the natives directly. In doing such thing, translation is very crucial.
According to Hatim and Mason (1997) “translation is defined as an act of communication which attempt to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)”(p.1). Newmark (1988) states that translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. From those definition, it can be concluded that translation is not only about exchanging meaning from SL to TL, but also carrying the meaning to the TL so that the readers/hearers understand the text. Yuliasri (2015) stated that translator, in his/her task of translating, must be able to comprehend the source text in the source language, and then render the text in the target language for comprehension by the target readers.
There are many differences found in both source language (SL) and target language (TL), such as in the form of structure, culture and style. Therefore, translation is very useful for people who do not have good ability in understanding SL. They are able to translate the SL to the TL to be understood. However, translation is not an easy thing to do. It might be difficult to establish its equivalence. The different structure and system in both languages might become the obstacles in establishing the equivalence. The enhancement of the technology has also provided some translation tools; however, the technology itself, such as google translate, sometimes is not able to understand the contexts of the texts beyond the sentences which provides miss information for the target readers (Hartono & Ismail, 2016).
In this present time, there are many bilingual storybooks that can be found in our surroundings. Children’s storybooks have significant role in language learning. They are mostly in the form of fables and fairy tales. Bilingual storybooks are created to facilitate children in learning their first language as well as the foreign language. The most common form of bilingual children’s storybook in Indonesia is English – Indonesia or Indonesia – English version. In translating a storybook, a translator should be able to choose the proper diction since the readers of the books are mostly children and their parents. Storybooks can give implicit impact to children, especially in relation to the moral values stated in the story. Thus, the translators should be smart in choosing the proper and correct diction so that it does not change the intended meaning.
In this study, the writer aims at investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The storybook is written by Heidi Howarth and is translated by Maria M. Lubis. The translation techniques used in this study is the techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002).
According to Molina and Albir (2002), a technique in translation is the result of a choice made by a translator, its validity will depend on various questions related to the context, the purpose of the translation, audience expectations, etc. Then, they define translation techniques as procedures to analyse and classify how translation equivalence works (p.509). There are five basic characteristics of translation techniques. They are as follows:
1. They affect the result of the translation
2. They are classified by comparison with the original
3. They affect micro-units of text
4. They are by nature discursive and contextual
5. They are functional
There are many classifications of translation techniques proposed by some experts. In this study, the writer used the translation techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002). There are 18 translation techniques that are described below:
To replace a source text (ST) cultural element with one to target text (TT) from the target culture.
ST : He likes to play baseball.
TT : Dia suka bermain kasti.
To add detailed informations that are not formulated in the ST namely explicit paraphrase. It occurs when the TT uses more signifiers to cover syntactic or lexical gaps.
ST : You’re early today.
TT : Kamu datang lebih cepat hari ini.
To take a word or expression straight from another language. It is a very simplest procedure among others. In this technique, a word or an expression is taken from the source language and used in the target language. It can be pure (without any change) or naturalized (to fit the spelling rules in the TL).
ST : My sister likes to download music from the internet.
TT : Saudara perempuanku suka mendownload musik dari internet.
Literal translation ofa a foreign word or phrase; it can be lexical or structural.
ST : Directorate General
TT : Direktorat Jendral.
To introduce a ST element of information or stylistic effect in another place in the TT because it cannot be reflected in the same place as in the ST.
ST : a pair of scissors
TT : sebuah gunting
To replace a term or expression with a description of its form or/and function.
ST : panettone
TT : kue tradisional Italia yang dimakan pada saat malam tahun baru.
7. Discursive Creation
To establish a temporary equivalence that is totally unpredictable out of the context.
ST : Husband for a year
TT : Suami sementara
8. Established Equivalence
To use a term or expression recognized (by dictionaries or language in use) as an equivalent in the TL.
ST : effective and efficient
TT : efektif dan efisien
To use a more general or neutral term in the TL.
ST : penthouse, mansion
TT : tempat tinggal
10. Linguistic Amplification
To add linguistic elements in the translation of ST to the TT. This is often used in consecutive interpreting and dubbing.
ST : just kidding
TT : Cuma main-main saja, bukan beneran.
11. Linguistic Compression
To synthesize linguistic elements in the TT. This is often used in simultaneous interpreting and in sub-titling.
ST : yes, then?
TT : lalu?
12. Literal Translation
To translate a word or an expression word for word. It focuses on form and structure without any addition or reduction into target text.
ST : where are you?
TT : dimana kamu?
To change point of view, focus or cognitive category in relation to the ST; it can be lexical or structural.
ST : Nobody doesn’t like it.
TT : Semua orang menyukainya.
To use a more precise or concrete term. It is the opposite of generalization.
ST : vehicle
TT : mobil
To suppress a ST information item in the TT by reducing unnecessary words.
ST : Her house is by The Thames.
TT : Rumahnya disebelah sungai Thames.
To change linguistic elements for paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) or vice versa.
ST : the Arabic gesture; putting your hand on your chest.
TT : Thank you.
To change a grammatical category. It often appears in case of grammatical change between ST and TT.
ST : A disease victim
TT : seorang korban wabah penyakit
To change linguistic or paralinguistic elements (intonation, gestures) that affect aspects of linguistic variation: changes of textual tone, style, social dialect, geographical dialect, etc.
ST : That’s the idea!
TT : Itu asiknya!
A storybook is a book containing a story or collection of stories intended for children (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/storybook). Noerjanah (2017) defines bilingual books as books with two different languages written either on the same page or facing pages. From bilingual storybooks, children are able to get knowledge of other languages and they learn other cultures as well. By reading the bilingual storybooks, children are also able to find out some new vocabularies that they might not get from their surroundings. In bilingual children’s storybooks, translation plays a crucial role in delivering the message of source language (SL) to the target language (TL) naturally, accurately and readable (Newmark, 1988). In translating the text, translators should take into account the diction that they will choose. The translators should choose the correct and appropriate diction regarding the readers of the storybooks are mostly children and their parents.
In this study, the writer aims at investigating the translation techniques used in a bilingual storybook entitled “What Makes Me Brave” and figuring out the dominant technique and the reason why the dominant technique of translation is used in the storybook. The storybook is written by Heidi Howarth and is translated by Maria M. Lubis.