Lymph nodes are the sites where white blood cells circulate in the lymphatic system patrolling all the vessels and the ducts, they are in lymph fluid searching for invaders and pathogens (Kent, 2000). When this happens, you can feel the immune response by it swelling (Kent, 2000). White blood cells also search for damaged cells or host cells (Kent, 2000). They should destroy these hosts cells as it could be compromised by a virus or our own cells that have gone rogue (Kent, 2000). In mitosis to ensure this doesn’t happen check points are in place to prevent our own cells going rogue (Kent 2000)
The tonsils make a ring around the lymphatic tissue surrounding the entrance to the pharynx, they are swellings of the mucosa (Spellman, 2007). The cilia within them collect and remove pathogens entering the pharynx where it be food or inhaled (Spellman, 2007).
Adenoids are located at the back of the nasal cavity, they protect the lungs from pathogens getting into the body through the nose in the same way (Spellman, 2007).
The thymus secrets the hormones Thymopoietin and Thymosin resulting in T lymphocytes being able to work against specific pathogens in the immune system (Spellman, 2007). Differentiation of T cells happen in the thymus (Spellman, 2007).
Cervical lymph nodes when a pathogen is detected it becomes swollen inflamed (Spellman, 2007).
Right lymph duct drains lymph from the upper right of the body (Spellman, 2007).
Thoracic duct drains lymph from everywhere else (Spellman, 2007).
The spleen filters out toxins and filters your red blood cells (Kent, 2000). Red blood cells can live up to 100-120 days, after this you don’t want them in your blood stream they are not as effective as transported oxygen around your body or carbon dioxide (Kent, 2000). The spleens job is to filter out red blood cells that have exceeded 120 days. If your spleen gets damaged or removed due to an injury your body can still function, but your filtration system won’t be as efficient (Kent, 2000). If the spleen ruptures, because it holds a residual volume of blood, your more at risk of rapid intensive bleeding (kent 2000).
Peyers patches are big isolated clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the small intestine. They prevent pathogens from penetrating the intestinal wall and produce memory lymphocytes to be able to have long term immunity.
Appendix release some mucus into the large intestine. leukocytes are introduced to antigens within the gastrointestinal tract by the appendix (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2018).
Inguinal lymph nodes filter lymph from the legs before the lymph heads toward the thoracic duct (Spellman, 2007).
Lymphocytes originate from stem cells within the bone marrow. It constantly renews red blood cells.
Popliteal lymph nodes filter and balance the blood supply to the lower part of body.