It can be most broadly defined as the entities, material and immaterial; virtual and real created by the application of mental and physical effort. This therefore entails the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization to provide solution to a problem or improve an already existing solution. In this sense, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real world problems. According to Imogie (1998), technology is seen as the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task; it is an integrated process for analyzing, controlling and evaluating solutions to problems. In the education, technology integration refers to the use of technology resources such as computers, digital cameras, mobile devices such as smart phones, ipads and other tablets, software applications, the internet, etc. in daily classroom practices and in the management of a school.
Tamo (2014) sees ICT in general terms as “the use of computing devices such as desktop, computers, laptops, hand held computers, software, or internet in schools for instructional purposes”. Furthermore, Udoh and Egwuchukwu (2014) note that ICT “is an electronic based system of information, transmission, reception, processing and retrieval which has drastically changed the way we think, the way we live and the environment in which we live”. They remarked that ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application encompassing radio, television, cellular phones, computer network, satellite system etc.
Based on the above explanation, these authors, therefore, defined ICT as “all the digital technologies including computers, scanner, printer, telephone, internet, digital satellite system, direct broadcast, satellite etc. They also added that there are different context here ICT are spoken of and such context includes education, healthcare, libraries etc. For the purpose of the study, Udoh & Egwuchukwu (2014) opined that the use of ICT in education sector is becoming quite popular. The role of technology in learning is rapidly becoming one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy. The above, justifies the imperative introduction of ICT for classroom instruction in Nigeria (Udoh & Egwuchukwu, 2014).
So many professionals in this field have also defined ICT and equally expressed its justification as learning instruction. Towards this end, Nigeria (2009) defined ICT as a whole range of technologies involved in information processing, it is a term used to describe technologies which receive records, process, transmit and retrieve information. It is the handling and processing of information by means of electronic and communication devices such as computers, cameras, telephones etc. It is the collection, processing, storage discrimination, retrieval and use of information for decision making, planning, operating and controlling, public enlightenment and entertainment. It is believed to be the scientific methods of sharing, exchanging and sending or moving such information from one place to another. However, Nzewi (2009) summarized that ICT is not one, but, many different complementing technologies, all digital, which include fiber optic, laser disc pocket switching, direct broadcast satellite (DBS) and digital satellite system (DSS) multimedia technologies”.
More so, Ofondu (2007) posits that ICT as electronic or computerized devices assisted by human and interactive materials can be used for a wide range of learning as well as for personal use. From these definitions ICT could be defined as the fastest means of processing and sharing information through the use of technologies for communication of information.
In fact, the prominence of ICT has attracted many professionals’ attention to the use of ICT in information management and communication. This is important in this 21st century era. In line with the above, Anyaogu (2011) posits that ICT is effective combination of electronic devices in the gathering, processing, storing, retrieval and dissemination of useful information. Adding that ICT in the 21st century has replaced information technology (IT) because of its appropriateness and utilization in lending itself to principles, policies, administration and practices of globalization. In summary, Anyaogu (2011) therefore defined ICT as a combination of micro-electronics, computer hardware and software’s telecommunications that enable the processing and storage of huge amounts of information and its rapid dissemination through computer network.
Furthermore, Anyanwu & Eke (2012) see ICT as a diverse set of tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store and manage information. These technologies include computers, the internet and telephone. Nayyar, (2013); Carmona and Marin Marin, (2013) gave a basic foundation to the claim that there have been acceptable changes on ICT in many countries over the past few years. They emphasized that flexible ways of learning which may involve formal, informal, and invisible learning are capstones for a random virtual education and expanded forms of education. Although basic educational system like the Primary and Secondary schools are generally getting global acceptance and they offer great opportunities, they do not replace formal education. They however stressed that studies have shown that the misconception about using ICT or more dependence on ICT cannot substitute formal education and classroom learning and it is meant to assist individuals who cannot get into school programs by outreach and online education.
In addition, Vikoo (2013) remarks that central to ICT information handling is the internet. Consequently, he defined the internet as a vast network of networks that connect countless computers connected by telephone lines or satellite system all over the world”. However, Vikoo (2013) explained further that in this network of networks, each computer that is connected to it, no matter where it is, starts working effectively because, the system according to Vikoo (2013) is not owned by anybody, nor, is it run by anybody and most of its services are free.