Introduction Information systems are very essential in solving several complicated business case problems for different corporations

Introduction
Information systems are very essential in solving several complicated business case problems for different corporations. A well-designed system gives room for growth of the organization. The system will serve its purpose if the design is according to all the laid down specifications. IT in the valley magazine requires an information system that will assist in attaining the various objectives of the institution. The system is to help all the departments perform specific tasks. The departments include marketing, editing, and processing and
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accounts department. All these departments have different functionalities that information system is expected to solve. Therefore, it is important that the intended information system performs the prescribed tasks with ease. Organizations should have information systems to ensure that their operations run smoothly. However, most of the companies have not yet fully implemented functional and reliable information systems to cater for their needs. They use systems that have limited functionalities that are needed in today’s digital world. Consequently, the lack of a reliable system bars them from getting the projected profits. This therefore necessitates the need to develop the UML diagrams that remain pivotal for business analysts and software developers.
IT magazine lacks an appropriate way of editing articles, payments of clients who contribute stories and photographs and receipt of payments from their advertisers. This makes the company have low gains in the long run. Introducing a fully functional information system provides an efficient system for editing as well as payment of journalists and advertisers. the IT Valley system is geared at improving the operation of the company in terms of reducing operational costs as well as enabling payments, receipt of adverts, photos and stories and processing and storing them in the system’s database.
IT Valley system encompasses media operations providing an efficient way of handling payments of journalists, photographers, and advertisers. It also provides an efficient database platform for storing information such as articles, stories, and adverts. This greatly impacts on the profits of the media company.
Aims
To come up with a system and construct UML designs that will enable to collect adverts, photos and stories including monitoring payments from advertisers and ensuring payments to
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contributors of photographs and stories published in the magazine, these contributors are the Journalists and Photographers.
Main Objectives
The specific objectives of this project are:
i. Editing the magazine as required
ii. The payments of the Journalists and Photographers who contributed stories and graphics published.
iii. In charge of invoice of expenses from advertisers
Managing information System
A good information management system for a media company enables operations such as editing of magazine, payments to contributors of stories and adverts and receipt of payments from advertisers efficiently. Many media companies in the world have gone through stages of digital revolution since time immemorial. Previously, the print media dominated where newspapers and magazines had to be printed on paper and sold out to readers. With time technological advancements changed everything. The electronic mail was introduced to assist in communication. In addition, the print media now resorted to publishing some of their stories on electronic platforms to reach out to more due to the power of the internet. The media companies began investing in efficient information management system to enable them to operate smoothly. This called for a huge in investment in both hardware and software (Anon., 2018) (Anon., n.d.) (Anon., 2018)
UML diagram
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UML stands for Unified Modelling Language. UML is a contemporary method to modelling and software documentation. In detail, it’s the most widespread professional development modelling methods. UML is founded on diagrammatic representations of software mechanisms. By employing visual illustrations, we can better comprehend imaginable faults or mistakes in software or corporate processes. UML was formed because of the disorder spinning around software development and documentation. In the 1990s, there were numerous diverse behaviours to characterise and document software systems. The necessity arose for an additional unified means to visually signify those systems and as a result, in 1994-1996, the UML was industrialised by three software engineers working at Rational Software. It was later approved as the standard in 1997 and has continues to remain the standard continually since then, getting only a few updates. (Ceta, 2018) UML diagrams continue to be influential for commercial analysts, development of software and designers’ specifications, to define, to plan and eventually documentation of the present corporate procedure and the way software system is designing. (Anon., 2018)
What is the use of UML? Mostly, UML has been employed as a multi-purpose modelling language in the arena of software engineering. Though, it has now create its way into the documentation of numerous occupational methods or workflows. For instance, activity diagrams, a type of UML diagram, can be used as a replacement for flowcharts. They deliver together a more consistent way of modelling workflows as good as a broader variety of features to advance readability and effectiveness. (Ceta, 2018)
UML type There remain numerous collections of UML diagrams and separately one of them serves a diverse purpose regardless of whether it is being intended before the implementation or after (as part of documentation).
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The two utmost far-reaching types that incorporate all supplementary categories are behavioural UML diagram and Structural UML diagram. (Ceta, 2018) As the designation proposes, some Unified Modelling Language (UML) diagrams try to analyse and portray the structure of a system or process, while other designate the behaviour of the system, its building components and its actors. (Ceta, 2018)
Behavioural UML Diagram
Structural UML Diagram I. Activity Diagram II. Use Case Diagram III. Interaction Overview Diagram IV. Timing Diagram V. State Machine Diagram VI. Communication Diagram VII. Sequence Diagram
(Ceta, 2018) I. Class Diagram II. Object Diagram III. Component Diagram IV. Composite Structure Diagram V. Deployment Diagram VI. Package Diagram VII. Profile Diagram
(Ceta, 2018)
Use Case diagrams Use case permit to apprehend system requirements under plan or consideration, pronounce functionality provided by those systems. Use case characterise the aim of an interface among an actor and the system. Use case are multi-level, one use case can use/extent the functionality of another. Actor: An actor is something with behaviour, such as a person, computer system, or organization. Scenario: A scenario is a precise classification of activities and relations between actors and the system under dialogue; it is also named a use case occurrence. It is one story of using a system, or one path through the use case; for instance, the scenario of successfully using IT valley information system to print collect stories, graphics for publishing. (Anon., 2018)
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Use case: Editor According to the case study the editor in editing department has many roles to play for the IT magazine or IT valley system. The editor first function is to check and edits the adverts. After the approval of the submitted documents, he then sends the adverts to process department for processing. The stories received from freelancing journalists and graphics from photographers are kept for reference purposes and payment for the stories and graphics published.
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Class diagram capturing the elements of the IT Valley system Class diagrams are useful in mapping out the structure of a system by modeling out the classes, attributes, operations, and the relationship between the objects of the system. The IT Valley system has a range of classes and attributes. Class diagrams are very important as they represent what must be contained in the system being implemented. This are the four major classes of IT Valley system are the following: 1. marketing department, 2. processing center, 3. editing department,
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4. accounting department. The symbol used in class diagram explained.
Image source (Anon., n.d.)
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Sequence model for Editor Sequence diagrams are a popular dynamic modeling solution in UML because they precisely focus on lifelines, or the processes and objects that live instantaneously, and the communications exchanged among them to accomplish a role before the lifeline ends.
The type of diagrams below is used by software developers and occupational professionals to comprehend requirements for a new system or to document an existing process. Sequence diagrams are sometimes known as event diagrams or event scenarios. Sequence has the following beneficiaries it represents the details of a UML use case, it also models the logic of a sophisticated procedure, function or operation. It monitors how objects and components interact with other to complete a process. Another benefit is the planning and understanding the full functionality of an existing or future scenario. (Anon., 2018)
Symbol Name Description
Object symbol
This signifies a class in Unified Modeling Language. This figure validates how an entity will perform in the framework of the system
Activation box
Characterises the time desired for an entity to finish a task.
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Actor symbol
Editor (actor) in IT valley shows entities that communicate with or are outside to the system. Package symbol
Employed in Unified Modeling Language (UML) 2.0 symbolisation to comprise collaborative elements of the diagram. (Anon., 2018)
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Editor represent actor
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Object constraint Language (OCL) Diagram for IT valley editor The Object Constraint Language (OCL) may be a language which allows one to make a case for terms and constraints on object-oriented models and any object modelling artefacts. The Object Constraint Language (OCL) seemed as an exertion to stun the limitations of UML when it comes to exactly stipulating exhaustive features of a system design. Originally developed as IBEL by IBM’s Insurance division for business modelling in 1995 In the case study, IT valley information system are displayed graphically by employing the Object-Oriented Language (OCL). (Anon., 2012)
OCL diagram
Component Diagram and interface explained A component diagram are fundamentally class diagrams that we can breakdown into numerous levels of activities. In the diagram below, we focus on IT valley information system such as Journalist, Photographer, Editing, Marketing, Accounts and Processing centre each component responsible for one main reason within the whole system and only interrelates with other indispensable elements on a need-to-know basis.
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Components and packages of the system are connected using lines that represent delegation connectors and assembly connectors. We can briefly explain the two types of interfaces in the below diagram Complete circle symbols at the end of the line represent provided interface. Half circle symbols at the end of the line (a.k.a. sockets) is known as required interface. (Anon., n.d.)
Component diagram
Software Architecture
A system architecture comprises of system features and the developed systems functioning together to guarantee that the entire system works proficiently. It defines performance, structure, and assessment of the system. (Anon., n.d.)
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We define software architecture as a technique of converting software structures namely security, responsive, reusable, flexible that meets the result and towards advancement of enterprises. (Aladin, 2018)
Architectural Systems diagram
Design Pattern Model Design patterns signify the finest practices used by knowledgeable object-oriented software creators. Design patterns are answers to over-all difficulties that software creators confronted throughout software development. These solutions were attained by probationary and blunder by several software creators over honestly a considerable period. (Anon., n.d.)
.
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Design pattern model
Engineering Analysis Findings
Engineering analysis is defined as internal guidance of a development. It can be pronounced as major breaking down of an object, system, problem or issue into its basic elements to get at its essential features and their relationships to each other and to exterior elements. It is a vital part of the engineering design loop that occurs many times during the completion of real-life engineering product or system design. Often, a thorough and varied analysis of a design prior to implementation primes to improve safety and proficiency in using the product.
In our case study we break down or decomposed the system into marketing, editing, processing, accounts, journalist and photographer into its basic elements in order to get at its essential features and their relationships to each other and to external elements. There must be adequate improvement in software engineering in order to make life easier for developer. In our case study IT in valley system depends on the efficiency of the software without involving error or failure that can bring the whole system down. According to my analysis IT
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in the valley that publish It Magazine either daily, weekly or monthly must not experience network failure, which could cost them loss of money and regular customers who subscribes to their magazine. The software developer of IT in the valley system must be an expert in this field and make sure they updates and make use of recent software technologies, their solution must be the best, envisage IT in the valley software is installed and host by cloud server, it must be able to handle the request associated to it. A bug free software is very theoretical scenario, producing one without it is even more theoretical. Software engineer of IT valley system must from time to time upgrade their desktop due to progression in computer and software technology has required for the changes of software systems. Another engineering analysis regarding software engineer in IT in the Valley system is to produce high quality software adapting to the changing needs within the company network system. To encounter this challenge, the object-oriented method is preferred, but accommodating changes and its maintenance within cost is still a challenge. Unnecessary communications take up a substantial proportion of the time spent on software schemes. Such time waste delays the accomplishment of projects in the stated time. Changes are usually integrated in documents without following any normal procedure. Thus, verification of all such changes often becomes challenging. The development of high-quality and reliable software needs the software to be methodically tested. Though thorough testing of software consumes most resources, underestimating it because of any reasons deteriorates the software quality. If the IT in the valley requirements are not precisely defined, software developers can misinterpret the meaning. All these challenges need to be addressed in order to ensure that the software is developed within the specified time and estimated costs and meets the requirements specified by their in the valley system. (Thakur, n.d.)
Limitations
To begin with, implementing the system could lead to job loss of some employees since most of the operations in all the departments will be digitized. Duties that were performed manually will be automated. As a result, the senior management of the company
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could decide to retrench some of the staff to cut cost. In addition, technical hitches especially bugs or errors from the software code may hamper the operations of the company. Moreover, there is need to hire experts to fix any bugs in the code which will eat into the budget of the company. Finally, the implementation of the system will require the use of computers, meaning that all the staff should be computer literate.
Conclusion
The case study was aimed at developing an efficient and reliable system for editing of the magazine of the IT in the Valley system, payments to contributors of stories and photographers and receipts of payments from advertisers. The information system is a web-based and can run on all web servers, for example, Apache HTTP Server, Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS), and Apache Tomcat among others. The information system is very efficient and reliable when implemented by a media company. However, the management of the media company should ensure that the software code works properly without any bug or errors before being deployed. In addition, the current employees should be given an orientation on how to use the IT in the Valley information system.