HIV and AIDS
Patients visit health care facilities due to different types of illness caused by living organisms such as bacteria and virus. Most people who visits these health centers are infected with viruses either knowingly or unknowingly. Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes HIV infection and as time goes by it induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). With time, this infection lowers the functioning of the immune system. Immunoglobulin produced mostly by plasma cells to fight any foreign substance in the body are then unable to fight against diseases. This causes the infected person to get infected with other diseases without getting healed even after treatment. It has been reported that the life span of a person infected with HIV who does not seek medical attention is around 9-10 years. Due to this case, people infected with HIV should seek medical attention as first as they can so as to lengthen their lifespan. Unprotected sex with an infected person is the most common way of transferring the virus. Other ways include contact between a wound and blood from an infected person. Young people are the most infected with this virus.
HIV virus is classified in to two types. One of the two is HIV 1 virus and the second one is HIV 2 virus. These two types can be present in a person. When this happen the activity of the microorganisms increases at a very high rate. Due to the weak immune system the person is more likely to be attacked by opportunistic infections. This case drastically reduces life span.
Body immunity systems that are affected by the virus include CD4+ T, dendritic cells, and macrophage cells. A decrease in the number of CD4+ T indicates lowering of the immune system. Active components of cells are destroyed by the virus in different ways. They include; direct killing of the attacked cells, pyroptosis of the attacked T cells, and destruction CD4+ T by the CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes. By now no HIV cure has been found. This implies that people need to be educated on HIV& AIDS so as to create awareness in the communities.
Identify clinical problem of the research that led to the study
In the United States, the number of individuals infected with HIV and AIDs are approximately 1.2 million (Bradley, et al., 2014). Most individuals survive by the use of antiretroviral drugs. About 50000 people are infected yearly. Transmission of this disease is increasing at a very high rate. According to the research conducted, it is evident that the cause of increase in the number of infected people is lack of awareness. People lack education on how to protect themselves from contracting the virus. This means that there is need to educate the society on HIV and AIDs.
Infected young adults in their 30s attend education classes on HIV and AIDs compared to the elderly and this influences prevention and management of the disease at the early stage within a duration of two years.
Importance of the study
This study will help young people be aware of HIV and AIDs, measures to take to prevent contracting it and what to do to avoid infecting others if already one is infected. They will also understand the effects of the disease to the young people and learn to take care of themselves.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to educate young people in the society on ways in which HIV and AIDs is contracted and also to discuss with them how it is transmitted from one person to another. In addition, the study sought to find out which group of the population is highly affected by HIV and the conditions that are in place to take care of the infected persons.
The findings from the research revealed that a larger portion of the infected individuals were not willing to reveal their experiences with the infection. This group consisted of young people in their teen and a little bit higher than that. The older people were more open to the doctors concerning the experiences they have had since they contracted the virus and the measures they have taken to live a healthy life. Younger people had a sense of shame and shyness that prevented them from expressing their experiences. However, the study indicated that the age bracket 13-19 had the highest number of infected individuals. This study motivated their self-esteem and thereafter they stated that they will be able to inform a physician concerning their problems with the virus. Their reluctance to tell about their experiences with the virus may hinder the physician from administering the most appropriate medication to deter the effects of the HIV Virus.
The study gives essential information that may shed some light on nursing practices. This will eventually improve the activities that nurses carry out for the betterment of the lives of the HIV infected persons. Often, the HIV virus does not reveal itself as a disease. A series of illnesses emerge after one contracts the virus. The most common being Tuberculosis. Other include flu and skin rashes. A patient’s visit to a health institution is to get medication for these minor illnesses but a HIV test reveals the major cause of the illnesses. In order to prevent excess excitement or reaction from the patient, they undergo a series of counseling before and after the tests. The initial one is to prepare the patient for any outcome of the result and the second is to advise the patient on the healthy ways to survive without infecting others in case the results were positive or advise a patient on how they are supposed to live to avoid contracting the virus in the future.
These methods have been used for a long time and they have had profound effects. However, the study has shown to have an effect on nursing. Nurses generally have a daunting task of taking care of HIV patients and determining the stage in which they are in. HIV patients need to be monitored closely after being diagnosed having the virus. One common infection that most HIV patients contract is Tuberculosis, a deadly and highly contagious disease. Due to the presence of other healthy individuals in hospitals, strict measures should be employed to prevent more people from contracting the disease. These measures may include assignment of beds and ensuring that the rooms are well ventilated to allow circulation of air. The study further indicates that lack of balanced diet for HIV patients may lead to death. This is because they have few foreign antibody fighting mechanisms leading to poorer health. Nurses should ensure that every HIV infected person receives balanced diet to prevent untimely deaths (Hughes, n.d.)
The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Pennsylvania. So as to minimize the risk of harm and be able to achieve the objective of the study, an ethical approach was employed in the study (McCarron, 2013). Privacy in medical institutions is paramount. This study ensured that the patients’ data was fully secured and was not disclosed to any third party.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Bradley, H., Hall, H. I., Wolitski, R. J., Van, H., Stone, A. E., LaFlam, M., & Frazier, E. L. (2014). Vital signs: HIV diagnosis, care, and treatment among persons living with HIV— the United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Hughes, A. M. (n.d.). Inpatient Management of the Adult with Advanced HIV Disease. Retrieved from HIV Insite: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/Insite?page=kb-00&doc=kb-03-03-04
McCarron, M. C. (2013). Negotiating Responsibility for Navigating Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research: A Reviw of Miller, Birch, Mauther, and Jessop’s (2012). Ethics in Qualitative Research. Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol8/iss51/3