Field Trip

Field Trip: Burns Bog, Deas Island and Boundary Bay
Name: Sutantar Pal Singh Gill
Student Number: 300289698
Instructor: Nathalie Vigouroux Caillibot
Course: EAES 1207-001
Institution: Douglas College
General Introduction
Environmental science field trip was based on an investigation of various characteristics of the natural surroundings over the lower mainland. Three primary field destinations which were contemplated for the examination were Burns Bog, Deas Island, and Boundary Bay. Each of these destinations represents some unique features which are given to these locations by nature.
Burns Bog is the largest domed peat lowland on the planet enveloping more than 40 square kilometres of land located in Delta, British Columbia. Just a little part of the region on this delicate eco-framework is available to people in general in a territory on the eastern side called the Delta Nature Reserve. Raised footpaths weave through the forested regions, ignoring special plants life made by the bog. As indicated by Burns Bog Conservation Society (web blog-2016), the Burns Bog is considered as “Lungs of Lower Mainland”, due to its striking commitment to the biological system. Burns Bog Conservation Society (w. blog-2016) additionally expresses that it is a home to the endangered species like Southern Backed-vole, which gives an idea that this location may have species which are considered as the part of the ‘red list’. As referred in BC’s Coast Region (web document), that Southern Backed-vole is found in Burns Bog, which is one of the species in the food web of the zone, as it benefits from nuts, consequently, help in spreading out of seeds and furthermore, in scattering contagious spores which frame mutualistic supplement connection between vascular plants and parasites. The second location, Deas Island is a regional park which is situated on the South Arm of Fraser River among Delta and Richmond in British Columbia. Named after the settler John Sullivan Deas, the island was at one time the essential activity of a cannery that delivered the largest quantity of salmon along the Fraser River. It involves numerous regular factors and human civilities, across, making it an ideal fascination for voyagers. The administration needs to centre around uncertainties and buts of the place since it grounds a wellspring of pay via drawing in sightseers. As indicated by the Statistics Portal (2018), the travel industry contributes around 34.1 billion dollars to the national GDP in 2016. The third location of the research was Boundary Bay, located in the south of Vancouver close to the outskirt with the United States and attracts many tourists because of its features like bird watching and Wildlife reserve area. It is interesting to take note that guests come here with their exceptionally costly gear like various focal point cameras and far vision telescopes to watch snowy owls, which relocate in winter season from arctic to south (Vancouver Trails, 2014). Birds are sensitive to the disturbance therefore, it is necessary to stay on designated trails. Migratory birds require resting living spaces and undisturbed access to nourishment to effectively complete their movement. Ground-settling birds flushed from a home may desert their eggs or youthful.
All these locations are distinct and unique, in flora as well as fauna. Burns Bog is named after Dominic Burns, who bought “The Great Delta Bog” in 1906. Burns Bog was utilized by First Nations individuals, including the Tsawwassen, Semiahmoo, Stolo, Katzie, and Musqueam First Nations, for a great many years. The Bog produces an important source of food for the people in region by supplying berries and produces some medicinal plants. Burns Bog is crucial as far as social, archaeological, conventional and current employments. A few First Nations featured the significance of directing an archaeological appraisal of the Burns Bog region. The most established realized an archaeological site close Burns Bog is called Glenrose, after the Glenrose cannery. The site is situated under the Alex Fraser Bridge in North Delta, and is evaluated to be 4,500 years of age. Similarly, Deas Island also exhibit unique characteristics. This island is the home of three historical buildings (Burrvilla, Inverholme, and the Delta Agriculture Hall) along with a 300-acre regional park. Thirdly, the Boundary Bay also holds for its historical perceptive. The park is situated on the western shore of Boundary Bay inside the Fraser River Estuary, one of Canada’s most critical biological systems for moving and wintering birds. This region is universally huge and is assigned as an Important Bird Area (IBA). According to Canada’s Historic Place (web-2007), Boundary Bay is considered as the oldest operating cemetery in Delta, established in 1891 just over land of six acres purchased from the municipality, however, it expanded over time and thus its configuration, diversity, and community evolved. This has contributed to a lead hand in shaping the bay of the day.
According to the aspects of history, these locations have been affected by the Eco-province, Eco-section, and Eco-region. Burns Bog is a part of Coast and Mountain (eco-territory), Strait of Georgia (eco-area) and Lower Mainland (eco-district). This area may affect close-by eco-segments (Fraser Lowland and Southern Pacific Range). Deas Island is a part of Coast and Mountain (eco-province), Southern Pacific Ranges (eco-section) and Lower Mainland (eco-region). Also, Boundary Bay is mainly a part of Georgia depression (eco-province), Fraser Lowland (eco-section) and Lower Mainland (eco-region) surrounded by Coast and Mountains all around. As Boundary Bay is along the coastline, condition anticipated is for the most part windy, stormy and sunny occasionally. Burns Bog Conservation Society (w. blog-2016) accounts that the bog faces an overwhelming precipitation, arranging it as a mild rainforest along the west bank of North America. Deas Island hangs on for a fluctuating climate as months of the year change. The Weather Network (2018) demonstrates that in Deas Island, as of now i.e. in winters the normal temperature ranges 6-12 degree Celsius; with precipitation 0-15mm. However, sometimes the weather can be unpredictable. The situation is fundamentally the same as the Boundary Bay. The purpose behind uncertain climate conditions at the Bay is that it lies on the coastline, at the same time, chances of the shower are perpetual. As each place holds certain regular characters, in this way, it is a humanly moral obligation to think about these. Each living space contributes itself to the evolved way of life and environment at a specific dimension and expulsion of these from the biological community will progressively influence different dimensions too.
Site Specific Introduction
a. Site 1 (Burns Bog):
UTM Location- 1. Easting (0504927) and Northing (5443850)
2. Easting (0504831) and Northing (5443523)
3. Easting (0504914) and Northing (5443673)
Burns bog is a peat bog with the undeveloped urban land mass which is located in Delta, British Columbia. At Burns Bog, the deposits of peat are up to 20 m deep. The topographic map shows the Burns bog green in color, which indicates the forests and its resources. It is alluded as lungs of the lower mainland since it goes about as a channel and delivers a lot of natural air which helps in keeping up the oxygen content noticeable all around. The pre-examination of the place can anticipate that vegetation would require high water take-up, paying little mind to soil attributes. The post-investigation portrays soil as high on the water table, poor in supplements, with an acidic substrate. Therefore, only some of the species can tolerate such environmental conditions. The soil of the bog contains in general 70% of organic matter and 7-10% mineral soil. Burns Bog is a small natural habitat which is disturbed with human activities as in the form of air and noise pollution from the roads nearby. A man-made walkway of woods is made all through the bog for the guests to explore the place. Walking on the channel we see that there are leafless trees seen in the start, and along these lines the land can be categorized as a wetland. Therefore, it can be said that the soil would be less nutritious. There are some thorny plants in the bog which indicates the presence of some herbivorous predators. Mostly, small mosses and ferns have grown over the tree barks. As it is a wetland, it shows over moist trees and is almost 3 metres above the sea level. Due to the wet conditions, the decomposition is very slow. There are nearly 14 different plant species in the Burns Bog among which “peat-forming” is considered as the most important plant community. The Burns Bog include many rare plants such as Cloudberry, Bog-rosemary, Crowberry and Velvet-leaf blueberry (Delta, 2018). As the Bog has a wide variety of habitat, a high diversity of wildlife is supported by the bog. Fish is found only at the edge of the bog because of the low pH and lack of oxygen in the stagnant water. Peregrine Falcon is a red list bird which is found in the Burns Bog. Apart from its social and topographical uses, it is our ethical need to conserve this place and utilize it according to the necessities because the unique species found here are utilized for different medicinal and different advantages.
b. Site 2 (Deas Island):
UTM Location: Easting (0495281) and Northing (5440965)
Second research site was a recreational area, Deas Island, which was a wetland. BC list perceives this place in its yellow list because of the fact that the dominant part of species here is, no uncertainty broadly utilized at the same time, not nearly endanger. Deas Island is common for sight-seeing both in the park and below the surface of the Fraser River’s south arm. Geography of Deas Island demonstrates that it is a location which is surrounded by water. The texture of soil of this island is fine. Soil pit that was burrowed, helped in determining the soil quality. The soil of this Island has O, A and B horizons. The soil of O horizon is reddish-brown in color, while that of A and B is grey and light brown in color respectively. the B layer of the soil is organic in nature. The reddish color of the soil shows that it is rich in iron whereas the greyish color depicts the oxidation process. The pH value of soil is 7, the soil contains clay as well as sand in it. Invasive Species Council (2014) describes attack species as the ones which are not the locals of the place and are presented in the territory either naturally or artificially and these species can affect the first natives. These species are introduced due to the human activities. These invasive species can impact the recreational opportunities and habitat quality of the island. It is difficult to differentiate the native and invasive species. Therefore, in order to determine the invasive species, list the species found at this place, and then categorize them into native and invasive species on basis of morphological and anatomical features. One example of native species found at this place is Palm tree moss (Leucolepis acanthoneuron). Deas Island is the mixture of deciduous and coniferous trees. The trees at this island are 30-40 feet in height and the shrubs have woody stems covered with ferns. It is necessary to take care of this place as it accounts for historical buildings, a tourist place and a recreational park. The destruction of this place can destruct the culture and ethics of the place. As this place is near the Fraser River estuary therefore, it is a home to many species of wildlife and it contributes towards the high end of the food web of lower mainland. As it is walled by the industrial zone, it likewise assimilates the everyday contamination and diminish the contamination of water body and keep up the gaseous proportion of the air.

c. Site 3 (Boundary Bay)
UTM Location: 1. Easting (0498315) and Northing (5433954)
2. Easting (0498416) and Northing (5433918)
Boundary Bay is a regional park which is located in Tsawwassen, Delta, in Greater Vancouver. Boundary Bay land is utilized as recreation (presence of a golf club), bird watching and in this manner its primary utilize comes to be urban followed by forests and extraction. The park situated on the western shore of Boundary Bay inside the Fraser River Estuary, is one of Canada’s most essential environments for moving and wintering birds. Boundary Bay is a tidal zone therefore its geography and ecology are shaped accordingly. The soil has O, A, B and C horizon. The O horizon layer is dark black in color. The A and B horizon is dark and light brown in color respectively while C horizon is grey in color. The soil of this place contains iron mineral. The water at Boundary Bay is rich in nutrients thus the land is good for agricultural purposes. As per a study by Ghost Shrimp Population Assessment and Habitat Survey (2008) female to male proportion of some creature species at the bay is 7 to 1. It implies females found here are multiple times more than males. The biological clarification for this situation could be that one fertile male can be sufficient for mating with various females and hence reproduce. Birds and other wildlife rely upon basic environment in Boundary Bay, including salt and water swamps, tidal mudflats, grassland, sand dunes and sandy shoreline. Migratory birds that rest and feed in the park, and ground nesting birds, are delicate to disturbance which is caused by human activities and dogs. The birds which migrate from other locations require resting and undisturbed environment to successfully complete their migration. Farmers in Delta take care of the farmland and the habitat of wildlife. As there are many species which are found only at the Boundary Bay as well as many migratory species depend on this location for their habitat, therefore it is necessary to preserve this location.

It can be concluded that all the researched areas have their own culture and history. All the three places are similar but have some unique features which make them different from each other. It cannot be neglected that all these places are affected by human interventions. Due to these human disturbances many species are being transferred from blue to yellow and then yellow to red list, which is not good for the life cycle and disturbs the food web. Therefore, it is necessary to protect such places which conserve nature and natural habitat.