Education is broadly identified as the indicator of development. One of the fundamental functions of education is to produce skilled human resource which can overcome improvement impediments of a country. To acquire this, there have to be a comfy work force in the sector. Employees who have excessive level of job pleasure commit their time, strength and efforts to work hard which results in excessive productiveness (Scott, 2004). As Kousteliou (2001), describes job satisfaction is a most interesting area for many researchers to learn about work mind-set in workers. Due to better performance proven by using cozy workers, it is the pinnacle precedence of all organizations to reap the desired goals by growing their satisfaction. Accordingly to Armstrong (2006), a job satisfaction is the attitudes and emotions human beings have about their jobs. For Armstrong, high quality or favorable attitudes about the work and the work surroundings indicate job satisfaction, and the inverse, referring to poor or destructive attitudes toward the work point out job dissatisfaction.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Zembylas, M., and Papanastasiou, E.(2006), seen teacher job delight as a feature of the perceived relation between what one wishes from teaching, and what one perceives instructing is presenting to a teacher. Hongying, (2008) adds, job pride refers to the ordinary mind-set and views of instructors towards their working prerequisites and profession. Teachers are the most vital resources in a school. They are the key figures for any changes (e.g., instructional reforms) needed in schools. The provision of a high quality education system depends on excessive fantastic teachers (Jyoti & amp; Sharma, 2009).
An excessive trainer morale, relevant subject knowledge, and the teachers’ specialized educating capabilities specially (pedagogical knowledge) are central to an effective and exceptional instructing and studying (Bolin, 2007). Related to this, Majasan (1995) described a trainer as, one who teaches (especially with young ones), builds up, instructs, trains and guides them for healthful boom and steady grown up life. His job goes beyond educating into molding younger lives, guiding youth, motivating students and general character training. A teacher can be seen as one whose career consists of teaching, instructing, impacting, understanding, innovations, and guiding beginners to bypass via the learning process. An instructor is a lecture room practitioner, the one who interprets educational philosophy and objectives into understanding and skills. During formal instruction, teachers facilitate students in the school room (Ofoegbu, 2004).To recognize this one of the important keys to presenting training in the faculties is teacher. Hence, teachers’ play the most decisive role in influencing social and personal development of the students.
They are predicted to commit themselves professionally, with offering knowledge, skill and attitude. The biggest characteristic of the teachers’ are their commitment, satisfaction and motivation and that are the determinant elements for the students to benefit from the education system. Teachers act as role-models, due to the fact that they are the pillars of the society (Jyoti ; Sharma, 2009) who assist the students, not only to grow, however also to be the attainable leaders of the subsequent generation, and to shoulder the responsibility of taking their nation ahead. Satisfaction with the educating factor has necessary consequences. It accommodates that the instructors are happy, dedicated and committed, and it also helps them to bring their pleasant characteristics to their schools, so that students, parents, and the society may additionally advantage from their services (Ofoegbu, 2004).
1.2.1 ROLE OF A TEACHER:
Teachers like other personnel have moral responsibility for over all development of their country. On the way of doing that, they choose to be professionally nice and satisfied on their job. As indicated by Jaiyeoba and Jibril (2008), relaxed and prompted instructors are important for any instructional system. The success or failure of the education system relies upon ordinarily on satisfied teachers, however also on relaxed school managers and administrators. Teachers specifically spend an excellent quantity of time with their students in class, and as a result they have a significant impact on pupil success (Correnti, Miller ; Rowan, 2002; Jyoti ; Sharma, 2009). The availability of capable instructors with the required knowledge, talent and attitude is a key factor for offering of excellent education, thus the lack of job satisfaction may have an effect on the productivity of even these nicely certified and fairly skilled teachers through absenteeism, apathy and lack of interest directly or indirectly, all of which can lead to a lack of work continuity.
Supporting this thought Lussier (1990) indicate, job pleasure can contribute notably to the effectiveness of an organization. It contributes to productive output in the form of excessive quantity and nice results and services, as well as to maintain the targets of low absenteeism and apathy.
Accordingly Shann (2001), describes that teacher delight has been shown to be a predictor of teacher retention, determinates of instructor’s commitment, and to the contributor of school effectiveness. Commitment refers to an individual’s attachment to the work and the organization. It refers to the socio-psychological bonding of an individual to his team or organization, its goals and values are adopted and accepted by him as his occupation and profession. It could show up in phrases of three ways i.e., affective, normative and continuance and each kind of dedication ties the man or woman to the organization in specific approaches and will be in a different way that affects the manner which the employee conducts him/herself in the place of business (Meyer et al, 2002). Fostering commitment among teachers’ is important because teachers, who are notably committed stay longer, operate better, actively participate in the work and engage in organizational citizenship behavior.
In addition, the commitment and effectiveness of instructors rely on their motivation, morale and job satisfaction. This implies that trainer’s job pleasure and their commitment is an important phenomenon for normally secondary school teachers, their employers and college students at large. For the success of any organization, committed and comfortable human resources are considered as the most necessary belongings of an organization. In distinction to this, instructors who have less satisfaction on their job make them to reflect frustration in work environment. Their frustration will be manifested through distinct conditions. Concerning quality of education, Pigozzi (2008) states, poor traits frustrate efforts to use schooling as an effective gadget for financial growth and improvement in this age of accelerating globalization.
The non-committed, disappointed employees are the biggest chance as it leads to absence of enrichment, achievement of school’s desires and objectives. According to Mwamwenda Badenhorst, George & Louw, (2008), a lack of instructor job delight results in well-known teacher absenteeism from school, aggressive behavior closer to colleagues and learners, early exits from the profession, and psychological withdrawal from the work. All of these poor results lead to poor pleasant teaching. Other research showed that a lack of job pleasure is frequently accompanied by feelings of bitterness, despair, impatience, displeasure and futility (Pinder, 2008). Thus, a lack of job satisfaction has serious implications for the teacher, as properly as for the instructional system in which he or she is employed. In addition it appears that one of the prime elements that affect the achievement of academic targets of school students is the scarcity of knowledgeable and committed instructors in schools with needed quality and quantity.
Shortage of professionally skilled man energy and lack of clear understanding in schools educating structures are the major educational problems presently in faculties which have an effect on student’s achievements (Hargreaves, 2004). Teachers’ opportunities for advertising are additionally probable to exert an impact on job satisfaction. By supporting this Robbins (1998), states that advertising possibilities supply for personal growth, extended responsibility, elevated social status. Limited or lack of opportunities for teachers for promotion affects instructional outputs negatively. According to Luthans (1998), salaries not only help humans to obtain their basic needs, but are also influential in satisfying the greater stage needs of people. Monetary and different types of unbiased incentives encourage teachers’ job satisfaction.
According to Boone and Kuntz (1992), imparting personnel fair and reasonable compensation, which relates to the input that worker gives to the organization, should be the main goal of any compensation system. Included in the category of compensation are such items as medical resource schemes, pension schemes, bonuses, paid go away and travel allowances. Generally, schools will no longer be function smoothly and can’t obtain their goals if the teachers are not satisfied in their job. Therefore, this study tries to tackle to compare and relate the level of job satisfaction among public and private secondary school teachers in district Mirpur and to endorse techniques in order to decrease dissatisfaction with the aid of examining the factors, analyzed the issues, presented conclusions and supplied particular recommendations and suggestions.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It is obvious that the reason of any instructional gadget is the guidance of skillful residents that help for political, social and financial improvement of the country. These have been accomplished when the components of the educational structures are in precise conditions. Among several components of the academic machine viable, purposeful and productive maintenance of satisfied, committed and influenced educating force in the gadget is crucial. If the instructors are now not satisfied in their job, their moral would be bad and a lot of harm is passed off to the professional man power supply (Naylor, 1999).
Green (2000), has proposed three theoretical frame works to recognize the job satisfaction at the work place: content or needs theories, manner theories, and situational fashions of job satisfaction. All of these frameworks might also be useful to a larger or lesser extent to recognize the job satisfaction of teachers. To attain greater degree of teachers’ job satisfaction, efforts have been made to get beyond alluring working conditions and to foster among teachers the success of those needs associated with the work itself, such as recognition, duty and achievement. According to Luthans (1998), if people work in clean, pleasant surroundings they have been discover it easier to come to work. If the opposite happen, they discover it tough to accomplish tasks.
When needs are no longer fulfilled then a person may also be affected psychologically, morally and economically. In relation to this idea, the social context of work is also possibly to have a giant effect on a worker’s mind-set and conduct (Marks, 1994). If teachers’ ethics are diversely affected, it is not be handy to assume most fulfilling devotion in their profession. As West and Belington (2001:103) stated, instructors are the most essential sources available within the school, therefore, the pattern of support for teachers’ improvement was the most necessary determinant of the schools precisely.
There are enough international and nearby researches have been carried out in the areas teachers’ job satisfaction. These studies come up with special findings. Some argue that teachers are satisfied with their job whilst others say the opposite. For instance, the end result of a survey executed in Botswana by Monyatsi (2012) indicates, “teachers are generally relaxed with their jobs” (p.219). A research completed on secondary school teachers in Taiwan displays that instructors of the goal area were blissful with their job (Abdullah et.al, 2009). They performed the research and draw out results by comparing subjects with some variables like gender, qualification, level and age. In their conclusion, the male instructors had been generally more relaxed than woman teachers. The graduate teachers had been extra comfy than non-graduate teachers. The higher ranking teachers were greater at ease than the ordinary teachers while the older instructors had been greater satisfied than their younger counterparts (p.11).
Beside these, other findings exhibits that instructors are satisfied in their job with regard to some aspect and disappointed with recognize to a few aspects. Concerning this, Rawat and Singh (2010) say, “Most of the teachers are at ease with the behavior of their predominant and other colleagues but, majority of teachers’ was disadvantaged from simple facilities” (p.188). Gedefaw (2012) PhD, desertion on job satisfaction of secondary colleges teachers’ of Addis Ababa. His finding of the study printed that instructors had been considerably dissatisfied with most aspects of their work. The area of dissatisfaction teachers’ work elements includes salary, poor benefits and possibilities for promotion, the management style of the principals, the lack of decision-making opportunities, and the poor relationships teachers have with the principals and the parents. The researcher has heard some complaints that made instructors upset with their job. However, these factors did not reveal by any local research of above mentioned.
These encompass of residences difficult, transfer get right of entry to hassle and other related factors. This strikes a query to the writers’ mind. Is teachers’ job pride differs from area to area? Therefore, this hole made the researcher to conduct the present study and find out facts about the goal area in district Mirpur, Azad Kashmir. So, the problem is how does the level of teachers’ job satisfaction associated with commitment and comparison of the level of job satisfaction among the teachers of private and public schools.