Crime has been taken as threat to all civilization and to the existence of society itself. Society with the help of values, morality, principles, laws and instruction tries to deter occurrence of crime. Everything we do in one way or other is what we learned during our course of socialization. The culture, religion, values, practices, media, school systems, work place, family, relatives, friends and connections that we practice in society shapes our mind and behavior. Those factors influence our behavior, our understanding of life, outlook and overall sense of reality in many ways. So can we not say crimes are too are the result of the environment, attitude and influence of the society?
In nineteenth century an Italian physician Cesare Lombroso in his book L’Uomo Delinquente discussed that some people are biologically born to commit crimes or they are biologically predisposed to criminal behavior. But criminologist like Cesare Beccaria departed from this theory and argued crime occurs when the interests of people sometime conflict with the interest of society. For Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist who exerted great influence on criminology on his period, argued, the explanation for crime causation is ‘the very nature of the society’. He acknowledged that an individual is a ‘product’ rather than an ‘author’ of the society so, the causations of an individual’s behavior either he is a criminal or not can be found only by understanding the society on which he lives. Thus an individual is a small image of the world in which he lives.
Despite the modernization of society and immense development in part of law, crimes do not seem to lessen rather it is proliferating. It’s because numbers of laws, treaties, conventions made do not consider what could the actual reason behind the occurrence of crime and what was the environment, attitude, mindset and circumstance of the criminals.