CHAPTER 1 1

CHAPTER 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY PURPOSE OF THE STUDY OR AIM STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM RESEARCH QUESTIONS RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS SCOPE OF THE STUDY SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY LIMITATION OF THE STUDY DE-LIMITATION OF THE STUDY DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background of Study The social media is one of the best technological inventions in the history of man. With its development, advancements and the dive the global communities has taken into it, almost everyone is faced with the challenge of having to meet up and cope with drastic change the technology has brought into almost every facet of human life. It has brought substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. The world is celebrating the advancements in communication technology today simply because it has broadened the scope of social and business interaction even across national and international borders which have ultimately turned the entire world into a Global village. The aim of the social media is to create and develop social interaction among people in which they share and exchange information and ideas in HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_community o Virtual communityvirtual communities and HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_network o Virtual networknetworks in a Language style they understood and have created for themselves. But as it is, just like the two sides of a coin, this great advent has brought with it both negative and positive influence one of which is the primary aim of this research study its Negative influence on students writing and speaking skill of English Language. The evolution of social media has led to its use as the best medium for Communication, whereby two-third of the worlds internet population visits social Networking sites on a regular basis, thus serving as a communication and connection tool particularly in connecting with old friends and meeting new ones either for mutual, business or academic interests. A direct relationship exists between Social media language usage and the English competence and performance, however the darker side of this technological evolution has resulted in dilemmas such as the setback in the speaking and writing skills of English Language which once used to be the pride of any students who possesses it, particularly in this present generation of students who form the majority of users interacting through the use of the social media sites. The main focus of this research study therefore, is to look into these social media language style and its usage and how it has significantly influenced the English Language Proficiency of Students in Post-Primary Educational Sector. 1.1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study intends to focus on the common language errors associated with the social media communication and how it has crept into the English Language proficiency of its users which is mainly characterized by students in Post-Primary Institutions. . But, this shift away from more physical interaction has actually affected theHYPERLINK http//www.englishtown.com/online/conversation-classes.aspxway we speak and write English particularly among students. In recent times social media have been a major stay in the minds of most students at every level regardless of age or location, the manufacture and distribution of equally sophisticated but easily affordable mobile phones has not helped the situation in anyway as almost every students is easily accessible to one either belonging to them or their parents. The purpose of this study generally is to examine the influence of Social Media on the speaking and writing skills of students in English Language But specifically, this study seeks 1. To ascertain how the exposure of students to social media has influenced their ability to communicate and compose grammatically correct English Language. 2. To examine how the social media language style including word abbreviations and acronyms has eroded the English writing ability of students in Secondary Schools. 3. To ascertain how the use of social media has negatively impacted on students performance in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations. 4. To ascertain if the social media they are exposed to has influenced positively on their competence and performance ability in English Language 5. To determine ways to checkmate the negative effects and encourage the positive influence of social media for academic excellence. 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The ability of the Social media to reach a very large audience in a short period of time makes its negative influence on English Language proficiency spread like wild fire among students who are its major users. According to media research sources, it has been observed that students participation in social media sites is having an increasing negative impact not only on their general academic performance, but also on their ability to employ formal literacy of English Language in communicative events, hence the alarming mass failures of students in English Language during WAEC and SSCE Examinations. Since the advent of social media sites in the 1990s, the academic commitment of students has been facing a lot of neglect which to a large extent have brought about a rapid decline in their general academic performance. It therefore calls for a serious concern when students are not able to clearly differentiate between the formal usage of English Language, a core subject amongst others that determines their academic progress from the ungrammatical words coined from their consistent use of the social media so much that the ability to construct good English has become a major challenge. This is especially common to students in Secondary schools and Higher Institutions of learning due to the fact that the benefits of participating in social media site in recent times has gone beyond just social sharing of ideas to career building and income generating opportunities which on has become a strong point of attraction to its users, old and young alike who see it as a juicy offer. Whether these opportunities promote academic excellence for students is a question that needs to be answered. The use of acronyms (an abbreviation formed from the initial letters of other words and pronounced as a word) are now commonplace substitutes to complete sentences e.g. LOL (laugh out loud), OMG (Oh my God), TTYL (talk to you later) are just a few that demonstrate how social media speeds things up by lessening the need to write longer words and phrases that are grammatically correct in order to reduce space. Thus, this research objective is to investigate the variables that influence the English proficiency among student as a result of social media interference on their speaking and writing skills. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS In view of the problems stated above, the following research questions were raised 1. How has the exposure of students to social media influenced their English Language communication skill 2. Has the social media language style significantly eroded the writing ability of students in Secondary schools 3. How has the social media impacted negatively on student academic performance in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations 4. How has the social media network they are exposed to affect positively on English Language competence and performance skills since its the major language of communication among users 5. How do we checkmate the negative influence of social media and encourage the positive effects for improved students performance in English Language. 1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS The following hypotheses were generated by the researcher and were tested in this study. 1. Exposure of students to social media has no significant influence on their English Language Communication skills 2. Social media language style has no significant influence on the students writing skills 3. The use of social media has no significant negative impact on the academic performance of students in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations. 4. The type of social media the students are exposed to has no significant positive influence on their English Language ability 5. To checkmate the social media has no significant influence on English Language competence and performance 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The essence of this research work is to primarily study the Influence of social media on the English Language speaking and writing proficiency of students in institutions of learning. The research intends to focus on students of the African Church Grammar School, Ikeja, Lagos, for ease of data analysis. This will reduce complexity that may arise as a result of having a very large population. But since in most cases the characteristics of students are generally similar, the research findings would be generalized to include all students in Lagos State Secondary Schools. 1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. This study will serve as a guide and help the teachers of the school to know the influence the social media has and is still wielding over the academics of students especially on their English speaking and writing abilities, and also as an eye opener for them to assist in enlightening and creating awareness for the students, enumerating to them the possible negative influences it could have on them if not checked. The study is of significant to the parents in the sense that they will have an informed knowledge of the possible negative effects of the social media on their children and serve as a watch-dog to help checkmate the unnecessary exposure of their children to the social networking sites, after all the parent is the first teacher of any child. In the same vein, the study will enable the students of the senior level to have an understanding that, apart from the social benefits of this social networking site which is more projected, using the sites more than necessary will pose possible dangers to their life and career. It will be relevant in assisting students in understanding the diversity of social media. It will provide relevance material for students and other researchers undertaking similar research. 1.7 THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The students are the major victims of the social media more often than anyone else. The fact that Information Communication Technology (ICT) has become a Compulsory part of the School curriculum in almost all levels of Academic Institutions has opened them up to exposures beyond their abilities, and the only way to meet up is to give attention to it even at the expense of academic concerns. One of the Limitations of this study however is that students exposure to internet has become a compulsory activity in Schools as part of acquiring Technological knowledge and development. Another Limitation is the cheap availability of internet enabled mobile device from which the internet is easily accessed without supervision or control. Therefore this study will be limited by data and elements that are not under the control of the researcher as stated above. 1.8 DE-LIMITATION OF STUDY What social media has done is enable us to communicate with a much larger number of people on a global scale in a way that we only really used to be able to do on a local level. This is great when it means we are keeping friendships alive over great distances, but also there is an increasing demands placed on an individual to keep a much larger number of contacts going simultaneously. For example, the average number of friends a person has on Facebook in Nigeria is around 300 even if you are only actually friends with 10 of that number, you still have 30 numbers of people to keep track with and the result is an ever increasing line of communications. Since the Internet Technology, which is the major channel of social media networks has become a mandatory line of study in the academic environments, this study will seek to explore the various variables that have contributed to its negative rather than a positive influence it has wielded over the students and their ability to employ good communicative and writing skill of English Language. 1.9 DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS The following are key terms used in this Research Work 1. Social Media- They are forms of electronic communication which facilitateinteractive base on certain interests. Kaplan and Helen (2010) defined Social Media as a group of internet based application that allows the creation and exchange of user generated content. 2. Social Networking SitesA website where people put information about them and can send to others. 3. Social NetworkingThe use of internet to make information about yourself available to other people especially people you share an interest with to send messages to them. 4. MediaAre all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Theyaremessagescommunicated through the mass medium toanumberofpeople(Bittner,pg19) 5. AcademicIt is concerned with Studying from books as opposed by a practical work. 6. StudentsSomeone who is Studying at a University or School. Someone who is very interested in a particular subject. 7. ComputerA computer is a machine that receives or stores or process data quickly according to a stored program. 8. English Competence and Performance This is the ability to employ English grammar in communicative events CHAPTER 2 – OUTLINES 2.0 LITERATURE VIEW 2.1 SOCIAL MEDIA CONCEPT 2.3 STUDENTS EXPOSURE TO THE SOCIAL MEDIA 2.4 SOCIAL MEDIA LANGUAGE VERSUS STANDARD ENGLISH 2.5 MERITS AND DE-MERITS OF SOCIAL MEDIA 2.6 INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON STUDENTS ENGLISH LANGAGE PERFORMANCE CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION Technological advances have provided new forms of socialization, information exchange, and communication in particular, the web and social media have been increasingly replacing traditional media such as newspapers, magazines and television during the last decade. Social media has grown quickly in both personal and academic use, and many studies have been undertaken to examine the use and application of social media in and its influence both positive and negative on the society and particularly on students form the bulk of its users globally. Language is a potent vehicle of transmitting cultural values, norms and beliefs and remains a central factor in determining the status of any nation. Nigeria is a multilingual country which tends to encourage people to use English at National and International levels. Basically, English in Nigeria owes its presence to the British through colonization but its subsequent rise is fully attributable to its acceptance which has now become the language of wider communication spoken by large a number of people both in rural and urban areas of Nigeria and the world at large. However, the major influence on English language is and has always been the social media. Social media differs from traditional or industrial media in many ways, including quality, HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reach_28advertising29 o Reach (advertising)reach, frequency, usability, immediacy, and permanence. Recent trends show that social media usage has increased. As of October 2011, one of the most well-known social media sites is Facebook (Facebook, 2011). This site currently boasts of 800 million active users, and over 50 of active users log on to the site every day (Facebook, 2011). Members are able to connect with friends on the site, and the average user maintains approximately 130 friends (Facebook, 2011). Further, more than 350 million of these users access the site through a mobile device (Facebook, 2011). According to Eldon (2011), 51.2 of users are male, whereas 48.8 are female. Out of this, 20.6 of the users are between the age range of 13 and 17 which describes accurately the subjects of this study Secondary School students. In ages past and up until now, various Language experts and researchers have delved deeply into the research of the effects and impacts both good and bad of Social media on the society and also in the academic environments. The mass failure of students in English Language subjects as a core has been traceable to their inability to express themselves in simple English grammar and compose meaningful essays as a result of the negative influence of social media. Internet slang and short message services have been shown to have impacted negatively on students competence and performance ability of English language. It was estimated that 90 of students owned a mobile phone, and 96 used text messaging. This shows that young people are the most active user of text messages (Plester et al., 2008). Internet slang was invented for the purpose of saving keystrokes, as typing is much slower than speaking. In order to counter this problem, the only option was to start using word abbreviations and creating new words. This new trend according to Craig (2003) reveals that texting has been able to threaten students literacy skill and ability because it creates undesirable reading and writing habits due to common use of abbreviations and unusual jargon, thereby damaging students ability to employ formal literacy skills. Text messaging is deemed to be detrimental to students English language proficiency since students mix this text language with the standard language they learn at school. Consequently, students displayed numerous errors ranging from incorrect spellings to ungrammatical sentence constructions (Mphahlele Mashamaite, 2005). The danger extends to classwork, examinations and research reports, especially in an academic environment (Dansieh, 2008). However, as professed by Aydin (2012), studies on the educational benefits of social media focus on specific areas such as social learning, e-learning, environmental learning, etc. A typical example is the well-crafted i-Learn platform of our prestigious National Open University (NOUN) that has helped students and make learning more interesting and easily accessible. CONCEPT OF SOCIAL MEDIA 2.0 DEFINITION The term social media was first known in 1994-1995, when the first web-based social networking site, Geocities, was founded (Goble, 2012 Kithcart, 2011). Later, in 1997, AOL instant messenger and Sixdegrees.com were launched however, social networking sites really hit when Friendster launched in 2002, and a year later LinkedIn and MySpace were launched. Then, the most popular site, Facebook, was launched in 2004, followed by another well-known social media technology, Twitter, in 2006 (Goble, 2012 Kithcart, 2011). Facebook has become the most successful social media because of its features platform that set itself apart from other social media (Goble, 2012), and that made the word, social media, become well known. The terms social media and social networking are used interchangeably. Social media refers to social software in the form of web sites and other online communities such as social networking and microblogging created by a large group of people (known as users) to share information, ideas, personal messages, conversations, or to develop social and professional contacts (Social media, n.d.). Davis III, Deil-Amen, Rios-Aguilar, and Gonzlez Canch (2012) defined social media technology (SMT) as web-based and mobile applications that allow individuals and organizations to create, engage, and share ideas or existing content in various forms of communications in digital environments. Social media is the social interaction among people in which they create, share or exchange information and ideas in HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_community o Virtual communityvirtual communities and HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_network o Virtual networknetworks. HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Kaplan o Andreas KaplanAndreas Kaplan and Michael Heinlein define social media as a group of Internet-based applications that is built on the ideological and technological foundations of HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 o Web 2.0Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User-generated_content o User-generated contentuser-generated content. It is a mobile and web- based technologies that create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content which has introduced substantial and pervasive changes to communication between organizations, communities, and individuals. It is a website that does not just give you information but interact with you while giving you information and has become one of the major channels of chatting through platforms such as Facebook, Whatsap, Twitter, Instalgram, 2go, BB chat etc. The usage effect of these social media, according to Nielsen (2012) is that, students continue to spend more time on the social media than any site and that the total time spent on social media across mobile devices increased by 37, which is an estimate of 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 88 billion minutes in July 2011. 2.1 STUDENTS EXPOSURE TO SOCIAL MEDIA A direct relationship exists between Social media usage and the academic performance of students in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. However the darker side of technological evolution has resulted in dilemmas such as the setback of real values of life especially among students with a strong effect on the way they speak and write English Language in recent times. Online social networking sites focus on building and reflecting social associations among people who share common interests and or activities and with so many social networking sites displayed on the internet, students are tempted to abandon their homework and reading times in preference for chatting online with friends and acquaintances. Many students are now addicted to the online rave of the moment with special interest on Facebook, Twitter and Whatsapp which has drastically affected their English Language ability as a result of word coinage and abbreviations of English words. Today most youths and students possess Facebook accounts. The reason most of them perform badly in school and especially in English grammar related subjects might not be far- fetched. While many parents are so quick to blame the poor quality of teachers, they might have to think twice, if they have not heard about the Facebook frenzy(Oche Aminu .2010). In (Obi,Bulus, Adamu Salaat 2012), it was observed that the use of these sites also affects students use of English and grammar. Olubiyi (2012) noted that these daysstudents are so engrossed in the social media that they are almost 24 hours online. Even in classrooms and lecture theatres, it has been observed that some students are always busy with BB pinging, 2go or Facebook chat, even while lectures are going on. Since most times, these chatting just buzzed in at unexpected times, the only way to quickly respond without delay is by using short abbreviations to save time and space. Because they are used to short forms and abbreviations in their chats, they forget and use the same in the classrooms, they use things like 4 in place of for, U in place of You, D in place of The etc. and this obviously affects their class assessment. For instance, see below a chat message between two students while lecture was going on Tope i, ao r u ( Hi, How are you) John V fyn (Very Fine) Tope Sup (Whats up) John Sul (See you later) As a result, students are beginning to lose touch with the correct way of using English grammar because they are fast adapting to the ungrammatical way of writing and communication especially among their peers and the problem with it is that they see no reason why they cannot continue using it as long as it is acceptable and understandable to them. In fact they see you as not trendy or being archaic if you are unable to flow in those terms and slangs. The question that seems unanswered is how long will this continue or are we going to adapt to this new system of writing and speaking English Language It is highly worrisome to know that students we are hoping to be the future of our tomorrow are already using their precious time that should be used for meaningful learning and innovations today, for making friends and associations via the social media platform that may not only distract them from their studies but also mar their future reality. Hence most students academics suffer setback as a result of distraction from these social media and erode their ability they once had to employ good English grammar in communicative events. 2.2 MOST USED SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKS BY STUDENTS A. HYPERLINK http//whatis.techtarget.com/definition/FacebookFACEBOOK The primary feature of Facebook is a wall on which each user maintains a profile. The wall is a webpage containing basic information and personal information (Pempek etal., 2009), and it also shows friends, photos, likes, subscriptions, and statuses. The status feature plays an important role on Facebook because users use their status to inform others about what they are currently doing or what is happening to them. Users can do many things with their Facebook page. First, users can upload pictures into photo albums and can tag pictures to friends, or if friends do not want to be tagged, they can untag them. Besides uploading pictures, users can also post links or videos from other websites, such as news and YouTube videos that they want to share with their friends or that they think may be of interest to others Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues. The latest version of Facebook, the Timeline, allows people to look at the users entries chronologically. That means that the solution to keeping previous important information up to date is to remind friends on the latest posts, to look at the previous posts or to repost the message. In order to be a member of Facebook, users first need to register. Then, users are able to create a personal profile to be used when they interact with others, add other users as friends, exchange public or private online messages, express common interests between users, build and maintain connections, and invite others to join a community (Davis III et al., 2012 Pempek et al., 2009 Wiki, n.d). According to Shih (2011), Facebook provides users with a variety of means to communicate and interact with each other and to make new friends all over the world. Facebook has become the most popular social networking site among collegestudents and worldwide. Facebook is used in multilingual languages 70 languages (Wikipedia, n.d.) around the world including many EFL countries. According to Mark Zuckerberg, the CEO of Facebook, Facebooks number of active users hit one billion as of September, 2012, with a larger number of active users than any other social networking sites (Davies, 2012 Grandoni, 2012 Guynn, 2012 Tsukayama, 2012). Given the fact that the world population is about 7 billion, about one in every seven people uses Facebook. The United States alone has the largest number of users approximately 167.4 million people (53.9) use Facebook (Wikipedia, n.d.). These merits of Facebook and the free access to internet enabled smartphones that is easily available to these students coupled with the need to belong and be socially exposed and accepted among their peer group contributed immensely to their yearning to always be on the internet even when they should be preparing for examinations. According to Kuppuswamy and Shankar (2010), One thing this addiction has done however, is to grab the attention of students from engaging in meaningful academic activity and then diverts it towards non-educational and inappropriate actions including useless chatting which has eroded their ability to use and write English Language correctly the way they were taught originally and the with this problem is that they seems not to understand the negative effects this exposure is having on them one of which is their failure in English Language related subjects during examinations. The truth is some students are fluent in English grammar until they are exposed to the social media. B. WHATSAPP Whatsapp is one of the changes in technology that is commonly used on specific mobile phones and computers. Since the Smartphones became popular, many messaging services were launched but Whatsapp has become very popular among them. The service is free for oneyear and after that a very small amount is charged yearly. Whatsapp Messenger has been around for a while but recent updates have improved the functionality of the application since its release date. The Whatsapp messenger was purposely created by Brian Acton and Jan Koum (2009) to make communication and the distribution of multimedia messaging more easily and faster. In as much as the application brings us so many benefits, it has also got it flaws that are currently causing more harm than good among the students today. In cognizance of the rate at which our youth at tertiary institutions are hooking up to social media, there is the need to educate them on its advantages and disadvantages in their academic performance accordingly. The main purpose behind this application is to replace SMS with a cross platform mobile messenger that works on an internet data plan. If you have unlimited text, it is still beneficial as it is a convenient way to skip international fees that carriers may charge. It is currently available for iPhone, Android, Windows Phone, Nokia Symbian60 and S40 and Blackberry. It is popular because there is no cost to message friends and family other than the internet data plan that users already have on their phones. With whatsapp messenger, communication through mobile phones has become easier, faster and cheaper. It is less expensive as compared to the normal phone messaging. An individual can chat with friends and family overseas through whatsapp without having to incur global SMS charges. The provision and access to learning material anywhere, anytime, and in various formats has potential to enhance deep student learning capabilities. In higher education, whatsapp is used for the enhancement of discussions and sharing information among students and their lecturers. Yalcinalp and Gulbahar,( 2010) articulate the value of these applications as follows encourage learners to learn by anticipating needs, make collaborative learning efficient and effective, build a relationship that stimulates learner-to-learner for consistent and progressive learning. Despite the aforementioned academic incentives offered by these technologies, limited research has been conducted to determine the comparative advantages and disadvantages of the use of the application and students performance Negative impact of WhatsApp Absence of cross compatibilityWhatsApp can only send messages to people who have the same application installed on their phones. In a nutshell, it is a restrictive technology for the users. In addition, you cannot send a message to the recipient if you do not have an internet connection. Moreover, the data from the application cannot be transferred to the inbox of the phone. An unwelcome distractionWhatsApp is known to cause HYPERLINK http//myessaypoint.com/effect-of-internet-on-teenagers addiction to the teensas they continue to check the phone for messages. As a result, people are not able to focus on important tasks. The continuous receiving of jokes and trolls can drive people insane and makes them crazy. Lots of irrelevant questions cloud the mind when somebody on the other end is not responding to the messages on the phone. Aloofness from the real worldPeople engaged with WhatsApp lose their touch to the outside world. As a result, they become social inaccessible and aloof. Non-interaction with the society proves harmful to theWhatsApp addict. They are extremely obsessed with sharing of selfies, videos and audio files among their friends and colleagues Other social media networks inludes TWITTER Twitter is an online HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_networking_service o Social networking service social networkingservice that enables users to send and read short 140- HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_(computing) o Character (computing) charactermessages called tweets. Registered users can read and post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_Message_Service o Short Message Service SMSor mobile device HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_software o Application software app.Twitter Inc. is based in HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Francisco o San Francisco San Franciscoand has more than 25 offices around the world. HYPERLINK http//whatis.techtarget.com/definition/TwitterTwitter is a free micro blogging service that allows registered members to broadcast short posts called tweets. Twitter members can broadcast tweets and follow other users tweets by using multiple platforms and devices. Twitter was created in March 2006 by HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Dorsey o Jack Dorsey Jack Dorsey, HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evan_Williams_(Internet_entrepreneur) o Evan Williams (Internet entrepreneur) Evan Williams, HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biz_Stone o Biz Stone Biz Stone, and HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_Glass o Noah Glass Noah Glassand launched in July 2006. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with more than 100 million users posting 340 million tweets a day in 2012. HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter l cite_note-12 The service also handled 1.6 billion HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_search_query o Web search query search queriesper day.In 2013, it was one of the ten HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_popular_websites o List of most popular websites most-visited websitesand has been described as the HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short_Message_Service o Short Message Service SMSof the Internet.As of March 2016, Twitter has more than HYPERLINK https//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_virtual_communities_with_more_than_100_million_active_users o List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users 310 million monthly active users. HYPERLINK http//whatis.techtarget.com/definition/WikipediaWIKIPEDIA This is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative effort of a community of users known as Wikipedias. Anyone registered on the site can create an article for publication registration is not required to edit articles. Wikipedia was founded in January of 2001. 2.3 IMPACTS OF SOCIAL NETWORK MEDIA ON STUDENTS There is no gain-saying the fact that social media has completely changed the way people interact globally. In one sense though, it has led to positive changes in the way people communicate and share information but however, it has a dark side, which seems to be so gloomy than its bright side. Social networking can sometimes result in negative outcomes, and some with long-term consequences even as terrible as death. Of course we have heard stories of such incidence, the recent was a young girl who met some guys online and was lured into meeting physically for further relationship only for her to be raped to death and buried. That was how harmful it could be. The preoccupation of students with the various social media networks these days is quiet alarming. It is very rare to see a senior class secondary student without an internet enabled mobile device while walking on the road and even in the school environment. Although some secondary school authorities are trying not to encourage this by not allowing students bring mobile device to the school environment, but some parents will insist they allow their children because that is the only way to monitor their movements and know where they are at any point in time. Though the reason may sound genuine, but the negative impact on the long run is unimaginable because this will only give them unrestricted and unguarded freedom particularly if its internet enabled device. However, there are always to sides to a coin good or bad, left or right, up or down. To ascertain the negative impacts of the social media on students life, considering its positive influence on them will give us a good basis to make an informed conclusion. 2.4 MERITS OF SOCIAL MEDIA TO STUDENTS i. Social Constructivism In the age of Wikipedia,knowledge is increasingly becoming a social construction rather than the domainof an individual expert. Social media provides an easily accessible tool forhelping students to work together to create their own meaning in academicsubjects, social contexts, or work environments. Supporting the development ofthis skill for students prepares them for real working experiences. ii. Breadth of Knowledge Whileshallowness of knowledge and connections listed as one ofnegatives of social media, the flipside of that shallowness is the broadness ofthe knowledge and connectedness that students can experience through socialmedia use. It is now easier than ever to know (or find out) something aboutalmost anything in the world through connected media e.g. Google. Additionally, studentscan be connected to a broader base of opinions and world views throughinstantaneous global connections. iii. Technological Literacy All social media relieson advanced information and communication technologies that seamlessly work tobuild and support technological literacy. Simply put, one cannot be engaged indeep and meaningful uses of technology without developing the sorts of rich HYPERLINK http//www.onlineuniversities.com/blog/2012/09/how-games-support-21st-century-skills/ t _blank 21stCentury skillssuch as information evaluation, troubleshooting, mediated communication,and others that will enable connectedlearners to become valuable contributors to a connected global economy While social networking has clearly demonstrable negative impacts, it is most likely here to stay. Deciding whether you or your children will use social networking is an individual choice. By using it responsibly and encouraging your children to do the same, you can harness the HYPERLINK http//socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com/Advantages_and_Disadvantages_of_Social_Networking o Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Networking benefits of social networkingas stated above while avoiding the HYPERLINK http//socialnetworking.lovetoknow.com/Reasons_Why_Social_Networking_Is_Bad o Reasons Why Social Networking Is Bad drawbacks DE-MERITS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON STUDENTS High school students all over the world have been negatively affected by social media networking sites. Despite its positive influence, there are more negative effects that social networking sites are associated with. Facebook and other social networks have had a huge influence on teenagers who are majorly high school students, the over use of these sites has led to all sorts of problems from academic to personal related issues including low grade marks in examinations particularly in English related subjects, anxiety, violence, depression and cyber bulling. But generally, the social media has actually impacted negatively on its users in one way or other including Diminishing Privacy Many social networking sites regularly make changes that require you to update your settings in order to maintain your privacy, and frequently it is difficult to discover how to enable settings for your appropriate level of privacy. Because of this, many users do not realize how much private information they are allowing to become public by not re-evaluating settings every time the network makes a change. Isolation While on the surface it appears social networking brings people together across the Internet, in a larger sense it may create social isolation, according to a HYPERLINK http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7898510.stm t _blank BBC News report. As people spend increasing amounts of time on social networks, they experience less face-to-face interaction.Scientists have evaluated social isolation in many studies, and have determined that it can lead to a host of mental, psychological, emotional and physical problems including depression, anxiety, somatic complaints and many others. Now let us consider the negative effects on our high school students. 2.5 SOCIAL MEDIA NEGATIVE INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS Research has proven that social media has many negative impacts on the lives of high school students. Most sources agree that social networking sites have brought some worrisome negative influence on teens and young adultsCommon among others are enumerated below. i. Health Consequences This is first and foremost the most critical of all the disadvantages the social media can have on anybody either students or professional. It is a healthy mind that stays and lives healthy, so anything that threatens the health of an individual calls for serious attention. It is actually a thing of surprise that an innovation that was meant to engender technological advancement could bring with it a deadly consequence. The overconsumption of social media among students can have a negative effect on their mental health and make them more prone to depression, anxiety and other psychological disorders. A 2010 Case Western Reserve School of Medicine HYPERLINK http//case.edu/medicus/breakingnews/scottfrankhypertextingandteenrisks.html t _blank studyshowed hyper-networking (more than three hours on social networks per day) and hyper texting (more than 120 text messages per day) correlated with unhealthy behaviors in teens, including drinking, smoking and sexual activity. Hyper-networking was also associated with depression, substance abuse, poor sleep patterns, suicide and poor academic performance. ii. Distraction In his article, Reiner is talkingnot about the momentary distraction of an isolated text message, but rather theway in which social media involvement provides an acceptable diversion fromintellectual pursuits. Essentially, he is arguing that it is socially safer to stay connected to peers through always-on social media, than it is to put oneself out there by having a legitimate opinion about a serious topic and disconnecting from the social networks long enough to put it out there. iii. Literacy Errors This is one of the texting also threatens students literacy because it creates undesirable reading and writing habits due to common use of abbreviations and unusual jargon, thereby damaging students ability to employ formal literacy skills. Text messaging is deemed to be detrimental to students language proficiency since students mix this text language with the standard language they learn at school. Consequently, students displayed numerous errors ranging from incorrect spellings to ungrammatical sentence constructions (Mphahlele Mashamaite, 2005). The danger extends to classwork, examinations and research reports, especially in an academic environment (Dansieh, 2008). iv. Pressure to Conform Reiner cites examples ofstudents confiding in him that one of the main reasons behind their 24/7connection is the fear of not keeping up with peers or appearing like aloser in public, Students wants to put up the I know what is happening attitude to show to their peers that they also belong to that category of happening guys around. This is more dangerous in a society like Nigeria where parents have little or no time for their wards either personally or academically, so they students are most of the times at the mercy of friends and peer group to relate and the only connection point is the social media network v. Shallowness This is an addition to Reinerspoints, but HYPERLINK http//www.teachthought.com/technology/is-digital-communication-shallow/ t _blank social media does promote a kind of intellectual and socialshallownessthat could have long-term negative consequences for learners. Twitter, text messages, and other social media tools focus on brief, quick,shallow interactions that do not encourage either deep socialengagement or intellectual exploration. There is, after all, only so muchinformation that can be obtained in 140 characters. While the option to digdeeper may be present through embedded links in Tweets, for example, there maybe little reward in pursuing those connections for students. vi. Poor Grammar Usage This is one of the most traumatic effects of social media on the average secondary school student. The fact that they have so much to say in a short time and space had increased the usage of short words and coinages. In fact, some are so comfortably used to these word abbreviations and ungrammatical spellings that they are not so cautious even during examinations. The social media more than its good influence on learning has helped so much to encourage poor grammar usage, and spelling due to short words and abbreviations, the result of which has been mass failure of students in English Language and other English related courses or subjects. vii. Spread of Wrong Information Another error the Social media has pioneered is the simple and easy way it spreads information that otherwise has not been verified or authenticated which and is perceived as fact even when there are not evidence or evidence available are in the contrary. This is done via the broadcast features on the social network platform which enables the user to send a message to hundreds of contacts or groups at the same time and the other recipients keep sending most times without taking time to read the contents of the message. This has led to people getting wrong information and some ignorantly following suit only to realize at the tail end that its nothing but a scam. viii. Exposure to Online Predators Another terrible effect of social media usage to the students and teenagers is that it opens them up ignorantly to online predators and scammer who takes an undue advantage of the innocence and ignorance of these students, polluting their mindset and making them believe they are much more than they truly are. This is how some students have been introduced to bad habits of gambling, prostitution, smoking without their parents having an idea of what is happening to them. ix. Decrease in Students Productivity When the time that should be wisely invested in academic and profitable venture is wasted on ephemeral things as chatting and making friends on social media network, the result is always unproductivity. Even workers that are no disciplined about the usage of this application find themselves in the web of habitually checking social networking sites while they should be working thereby decreasing their productive level. x. Cyber bullying One other effect of consistent exposure to social media network usage among students is that it encourages the use of fowl languages and cyber bullying. EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY OF A SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL INTRODUCTION Problem arises when users are not able to differentiate formal language from informal language as more often than not the students at post-primary level are more inclined to using improper formats and sentences that demeans Standard English. This particular peculiar occurrence has given rise to Internet slang, further raising the question of the impact on the English proficiency of these students. The danger however, is that those lacking or are average in English proficiency will have the tendency to imitate this language error which eventually makes them worse than they were and ultimately deteriorate the ability of those with a high level of English language proficiency. Therefore, the inability of these students to gauge improper, ungrammatical language usage in these mediums, may, in the long run, affect their career in their respective fields. Some students who have graduated find it intimidating to communicate in proper English either in speaking or in writing, especially with workplace management. This and the underlying feeling of inferiority of a non-proficient speaker communicating with a conversant speaker prove to be stumbling blocks for many especially at the point of job interviews. It has been observed in recent times that students have unlimited access to the internet as well as the social media. Students connect with computer to send and receive informations anywhere on the globe. The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as students no longer need to visit a cybercaf before they send and receive messages. Some teenage years schools i.e. Post-primary Institutions are so equipped that there is internet connection made available within the school premises as well as in the library. Online Wikipedia and blogs are now the main resource centers for students as attention have been shifted from Encyclopedia and making research in the library to complete dependence on the social platforms. It is a common thing to see a student reading in the library and putting the books aside on hearing the sound of a ping on the phone. According to a joint study by Campus2Careers and Study Breaks on the use of mobile devices among students, it was discovered that an average student is pre-occupied for about 3.6 hours a day with their cell phones and smartphones, while spending less time with computers, TVs, handheld gaming devices and e-readers. Though there may have been some social, economic, and environmental factors that have added to the pressure of students in the past years, however, with more and more students being preoccupied with social media networks, it is becoming increasingly difficult to concentrate on academic excellence even as one of the top academic areas that many school professionals are concerned about are English and advanced literacy among others (Williams, 2008). The current generations of teens live in a fast-paced technological world with many different types of communication happening all at the same time. For example, with the advanced technological features on most mobile device, its possible to be speaking to someone on the phone and still be chatting with another contact on any of the social network application, and so to balance up, something has to pay for it, hence, The Standard English Language. It was estimated that 90 of school students owned a mobile phone, and 96 used text messaging. This shows that young people are more active texters (Plester et al., 2008) than adults who would prefer to call than send text messages, but because typing is much slower than speaking, and in order to also save cost, words abbreviation and new words creation becomes an alternative. Although social media sites has been recognized as one of the most important resource avenue for education today, but studies however have shown that students are only exposed to the fun and entertainment side of the innovation such as Facebook, Whatsapp and the like basically to have fun, kill time, meet existing friends or make new ones (Ellison, Steinfield, and Lampe 2007) and are not aware of the academic and learning opportunities the sites could offer even to their own benefits. In view of this, they spend more time on the social network site according to Nielsen (2012) for unproductive activities which has been identified as one of the major reason for steady decrease in students grade point averages in academics (Kimberly,Jeong and Lee, 2009) and low proficiency in English Language competence and performance Ellison et al (2007) stated that the students use social networking websites approximately 30 minutes throughout the day as part of their daily routine life. Lenhart and Madden (2007) revealed through a survey that students strongly recommend among themselves the social networking websites to stay in touch with friends and get carried along in whatever is happening in the social circle. According to Nielsen (2012), the total time spent on social media across mobile devices increased by 37, 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 88 billion minutes in July 2011. While the current body of research contributes to the understanding of both the advantages of social media one of which is helping students improve writing skills (Kabilan et al., 2010 Shih, 2011 Yunus Salehi, 2012 Yunus, Salehi Chenzi, 2012) and the disadvantages which includes creating a bad habit of short forms in writing which has led to grammatical errors (White, 2009 Yunus, Salehi Chenzi, 2012). The communication-style of social networking users is observed to be rather similar especially among students, as the usage of these slangs shows how updated and current they are among their circle of friends and in the social media trend. The present study investigates how Internet slang used on Social media sites and mobile phones differs from Standard English. SOCIAL MEDIA NETWORK LANGUAGE VERSUS STANDARD ENGLISH Find below the list of the common words and abbreviations used in social media network chats compared to Standard English Slang Term Standard English Meaning HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/2 2To HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/2mr 2mrTomorrow HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/4ward 4wardForwardAFAIKAs Far as I knowAMAAsk me anything HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/atw ATWAll the wayBRBBe right back HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/bestie BestieBest Friend HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/bling BlingshiningOverly flashy jewelry HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/bro BroBrotherRelation HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/btw BTWBy the wayB4Before HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/cyf BFFBest friend foreverBTAIMBe that as it may HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/deets detsDetailsComprehensive report HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/dyd DYDDont you dare9itNight HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/faceremorse FaceremorseRemorse after posting on Facebook HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/fav favFavorite HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/fb fbFacebook HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/fbo fboFacebook official HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ftr FTRFor the record HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/fttb FTTBFor the time being HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ftw FTWFor the win HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gf gfGirlfriend HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gif GIFGraphics Interchange Format HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gmab GMABGive me a break HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gonna gonnaGoing to HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gpoy GPOYGratuitous picture of yourself HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/gtg GTGGood to go HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/hipster HipsterAlternative subculture HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/hmu HMUHit me up HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/hot HotBeautiful HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/hru HRUHow are you HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/iab IABIn a bit HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ic ICI see HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/icymi ICYMIIn case you missed it HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/iirc IIRCIf I remember correctly HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ikr IKRI know, right HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/imo IMOIn my opinion HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/imy IMYI miss you HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/iou IOUI owe you HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/kwim KWIMKnow what I mean HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/l8 L8Late HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/l8r l8rLater HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/lan LANLocal Area Network HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/lil lilLittle HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/lol LOLLaughing out loud HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/lolz lolzLaugh out louds HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ltd LTDLovers till death HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/lyl LYLLove you lots HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/mcm MCMMan-crush Monday HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/mia MIAMissing in action HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/movember MovemberMustache-growing November HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/mtf MTFMore to follow HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/mysp myspMySpace HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/nvm nvmNevermind HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/obo OBOOr best offer HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/obv obvObviously HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/oic OICOh, I see HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/omg OMGOh my gosh HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/pio PIOPass it on HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/pls plsPlease HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/pm PMPostmeridian HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/pp PPProfile picture HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ptl PTLPraise the Lord HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/rly rlyReally HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/rt RTRetweet HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ru RUAre you HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/selfie SelfieA picture of yourself HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/sff SFFSo freaking funny HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/smh SMHShaking my head HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/snapstreak SnapstreakSnapchat streak HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/stoked StokedExcited HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/swag SwagSkills or style HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tbr TBRTo be rude HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tbr TBRTo be real HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tc TCTake care HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tfw TFWThat feeling when HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/thx thxThanks HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/til TILToday I learned HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tisnf TISNFThat is so not fair HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tsnf TSNFThats so not fair HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ttyl TTYLTalk to you later HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/tweet TweetTwitter post HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/twitterverse TwitterverseTwitter universe HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/ty TYThank you HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/u2u U2UUp to youUwcYou are welcome HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/unfriend UnfriendTo remove a friend on Facebook HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/vine Vine6 second video HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/wadr WADRWith all due respect HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/wcw WCWWoman-crush Wednesday HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/wdyt WDYTWhat do you think HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/whoa WhoaExpression of surprise HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/xo XOKiss and Hug HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/y YWhy HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/yolo YOLOYou only live once HYPERLINK http//slangit.com/meaning/yt ytYouTubeYoure welcome SUMMARY From the many indices and variables explored in the preceding chapters, you will agree with me, that the major effects of social medias influence on the English Language Proficiency of our students are basically two- fold A. WRITING ABILITY It has been clearly observed and confirmed by researchers who had earlier understudy related subjects about the effects of the social media, and from this just concluded research project, that top on the list of the negative effect which has also caused a paradigm shift of some sort on the mindset of our secondary school students is the fact it has succeeded to a large extent in corrupting their ability to compose grammatically correct words and phrases in one of the most important subjects of learning English Language. B. SPEAKING ABILITY Of course, there is no gainsaying the fact that what you dont have, you cannot give. In fact, the rate at which pidgin language, code-mixing and switching has taken over communication in Standard English even among students is alarming and unimaginable. It is no longer a thing of shame as it was those days, for any student who is unable to speak good English grammar, but rather a thing of pride and big boysm amongst our students. Unfortunately, they realize too late how shameful it could be when they are faced with the reality to communicate with other colleagues who has high level of fluency in Standard English and they are unable to match up. All kudos to the unsolicited infiltration of the social media interference on language and communication. CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction This chapter discusses the procedure adopted by the researcher in carrying out the study the discussion is done in the following areas Research design, population of the study, sample and sampling techniques, research instrument, validity of the instrument, data collection procedure and method of data analysis. 3.2 Research Design This study investigated the effects of social media on English proficiency with special attention to selected secondary school in Ogba, Ikeja L.G of Lagos. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Descriptive Survey can be described as a survey which uses technique of observation as the principal means of collecting data. It relies on observation (questionnaire and interview) for the acquisition of the data, so that valid and accurate conclusions can be drawn from them. 3.3 Population of the Study The population for this study comprises of all the secondary school students in Ogba, Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State. 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique The sample comprises 100 students selected from 10 secondary school students in Ogba, Ikeja Local Government Area of Lagos State. The 10 randomly selected secondary schools are Schools Sample Ikeja High School, Ikeja, Lagos 10 Maryland Comprehensive Secondary School, Ikeja 10 Agidingbi Grammar School, Ikeja, Lagos 10 Command Day Secondary School, Ikeja 10 Ojodu Junior High School, Ikeja, Lagos 10 Cambridge College, Ikeja, Lagos 10 Redeemers International Secondary School, Ikeja 10 Minders Montessori School, Ikeja, Lagos 10 HYPERLINK http//www.ngex.com/bd/b/D-IVY-College-Ogba-Lagos-Nigeria/D-IVY College, Ogba, Lagos 10 Grange School, Ikeja, Lagos 10 However, the study adopted simple and stratified technique in selecting the teachers in each school. 3.5 Research Instrument The instrument used for data collection was a self-constructed questionnaire entitled Effects of Social Media on English Proficiency Questionnaire (ESMEPQ), for the purpose of gathering data for the study. The instrument consisted of two sections. Section A contained items that sought information on demographic data of the teachers. Section B of the instrument contained 25 items with four options (Strongly Agreed, Agreed, Disagreed, and Strongly Disagreed). 3.6 Validity and Reliability of Instrument The instrument was validated by giving copies to some lecturers in department of English Language in Tai Solarin University of Education for their comment. It was later given to the research supervisor for vetting and approval. The inputs from these experts were incorporated into the final draft before field work. The reliability of the instrument was determined by a pilot study using test-re-test methods this was done by administering the instrument on 25 students in Unique Group of Schools, Ikeja which is not one of the schools used for the main study. The administration of the instrument was repeated within and intervals of three weeks. The two set of scores obtained from the two administration were correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and correlation coefficient of 0.83 was obtained and this was considered to be reliable. 3.7 Method of Data Collection The data used in this study was collected by the researcher using questionnaires. Researcher visited the selected schools to administer the instrument through the permission of the principals in each school. The importance of the instrument was adequately explained to the school authority before the principal gave an approval for the administration of the instrument to the students. Therefore, the selected students were given the instrument to administer and after a week the instruments were collected from the schools. 3.8 Data Analysis Data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics for the participants bio-data and t-test analysis was used to test the hypotheses. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 levels of significance. CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4. 1 Introduction This chapter presents the analysis of the data obtained through questionnaire. The results were based on the response of hundred (100) respondents. However, t-test analyses were employed to test the hypotheses of the study with 0.05 level of significance and the results of the investigation are presented in form of tables in this chapter. Moreso, decisions were made in the study based on the outcome of the analysis (t-test analysis). Table 4.1 Participants Bio-Data ITEMS Age RangeNo8-12282813-17383818-22313123 and above33TOTAL100100SexMale4646Female5454TOTAL100100Do You Operate on Social MediaYes8888No1212TOTAL100100Social Media TypesFacebook3232Twitter1818Instagram1414Whatzapp3232Others1212TOTAL100100Duration on Social MediaLess than 1 hour39391-2 hours36363-4 hours1313Above 4 hours1212TOTAL Source Field Work, 2016100100 Table 4.1 above revealed that 28 of the respondents were between the age ranges of 8-12years, 38 of the respondents were between the age ranges of 13-17years, 31 of the respondents were between the age range of 18-22years of age, and the remaining 3 of the respondents were between the age range of 23years and above. This implies that the majority of the respondents were between the age ranges of 13-17 years of age. It is evident in the table that 46 of the respondents were male while the remaining 54 of the respondents were female. This implies that the majority of the respondents were female. It is evident in the table that 88 of the respondents were operating on social media while the remaining 12 of the respondents were not operating on any social media platform. This implies that the majority of the respondents were on social media. It is cleared from the table that 32 of the respondents were operating Facebook account, 18 of the respondents were operating twitter account, 14 of the respondents uses instagram social media platform, 32 of the respondents operates on whatzapp and the remaining 12 of the respondents indicated others. This indicates that majority of the respondents operates on Facebook and Whatzapp. It is evident in the table that 39 of the respondents spent less than 1 hour per day on social media, 36 of the respondents spent between 1-2 hours on social media per day, 13 of the respondents spent between 3-4 hours on social media per day, and the remaining 12 of the respondents spent above 4 hours per day. This implies that the majority of the respondents spent less than 1 hour per day on social media. Test of Hypotheses 4.2 HYPOTHESIS I H01 – Exposure of students to social media has no significant influence on their English Language Communication skills Table 4.2 Computation table for hypothesis I VARIABLESNo of CasesMeanStd. Dev.t ValuedfSig. (2. tailed)Social Media44 50.1310 6.1031 5.7698 98 000English language Communication Skills56 45.11765.2363 Significant at 0.05 level DECISION It is clear from table 4.2 above that exposure of students to social media has significant influence on their English Language Communication skills. This is established with the mean value of 50.1310 and standard deviation of 6.1031 for social media and mean of 45.1176 and standard deviation of 5.2363 for the students English Language communication skills, thus given a t-value of 5.7698. Based on the decision rule, and mean difference of 5.0134, we therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept alternative hypothesis which state that exposure of students to social media has significant influence on their English Language Communication skills. This corroborates the work of HYPERLINK https//www.womeninfocus.com.au/t5/user/viewprofilepage/user-id/7510 t _selfStylebygessica (2016) which says that theres no doubt about it, social media has had a huge impact on the way in which we communicate. The past decade has seen the creation of posts, hashtags, feeds, likes and pins altering how we talk to each other and how society itself communicates. A new revolution Social media has changed the way in which we interact forever. It has proven itself to be a lasting communications tool and has managed to capture a worldwide market. It offers users access to a global audience with an amplified voice.By having such a huge impact on our daily lives, social media is largely responsible for the shift from face-to-face contact to brief digital interactions. This has both positive and negative effects. Social mediahas been creditedwith putting us more in control of every piece of information we receive and consume, expanding our minds and shrinking our world. Though, it is also attributed to people using the Internet as a substitute for real life. The influence social mediahas hadon communication, both online and offline is undeniable. Also AdvancedPlacement and The National Writing Project (2012) surveyed teachers regarding social media use in the classroom, they found that 78 agree (26 strongly agree) that digital technologies encourage student creativity and personal expression. Digital tools of course give access to social media, which is a powerful outlet in and of itself to be able to harness in the classroom as a tool for communication. 4.3 HYPOTHESIS II H02 – Social media language style has no significant influence on the students writing skills Table 4.3 Computation table for hypothesis II VARIABLESNo of CasesMeanStd. Dev.t ValueDfSig. (2. tailed)Social Media Language Style 42 56.3265 4.1023 1.8144 98 000 Students Writing Skills 58 58.1026 4.3673 Significant at 0.05 level DECISION It is clear from table 4.3 above that there Social media language style has significant influence on the students writing skills. This is established with the mean value of 56.3265 and standard deviation of 4.1023 for social media language style and mean of 58.1026 and standard deviation of 4.3673 for the students writing skills, thus given a t-value of 1.8144. Based on the decision rule, and mean difference of 1.7761, we therefore accept the null hypothesis which states that there Social media language style has no significant influence on the students writing skills. This is in line with AdvancedPlacement and The National Writing Project (2012) which revealed that many of us know that with practice, we becomes perfection, especially when it comes to writing. The more we write, the better we become as writers. Social media can be a tool where students are encouraged to use their creativity combined with personal expression to improve and strengthen their writing. They further revealed that while this communications boom has been praised for its educational benefits, some argue that a negative side effect is beginning to take hold in our classrooms. Cyber slang is suspected of damaging students writing acumen. 4.4 HYPOTHESIS III H03- The use of social media has no significant negative impact on the academic performance of students in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations. Table 4.4 Computation table for hypothesis III VariablesNo of CasesMeanStd. Dev.t ValueDfSig. (s. tailed)Use of Social Media41 44.9792 5.0123 6.6250 98 000Academic Performance of students in SSCE WAEC English Language5950.1789 5.2741 Significant at 0.05 level DECISION It is clear from table 4.3 above that the use of social media has significant negative impact on the academic performance of students in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations. This is established with the mean value of 44.9792 and standard deviation of 5.0123 for students use of social media and mean of 50.1789 and standard deviation of 5.2741 for the student academic performance in SSCE and WAEC English Language, thus given a t-value of 6.6250. Based on the decision rule, and mean difference of 5.1997, we therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis which states that The use of social media has no significant negative impact on the academic performance of students in SSCE and WAEC English Language examinations. This is in line with thwork of denny Carter (2014) which says that Perusing Facebook, sending rapid-fire text messages, and tweeting back and forth with friends and celebrities alike might not be the best academic strategy, it turns out. A new study released by researchers atHYPERLINK http//www.miriamhospital.org/centers-and-services/centers-for-behavioral-and-preventive-medicine t _blankThe Miriam Hospitals Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicineshows a link between social media use and poor academic performance. The study wasnt limited to usage of traditional social media outlets like Twitter and Facebook, but instead included popular social technology like texting. 4.5 HYPOTHESIS IV H04 – The type of social media the students are exposed to has no significant positive influence on their English Language ability Table 4.5 Computation table for hypothesis IV VARIABLESNo of CasesMeanStd. Dev.t ValueDfSig. (2. tailed)Type Social Media 4836.22924.0331 13.205 98 000 English language Ability 52 47.8882 6.2358 Significant at 0.05 level DECISION It is clear from table 4.5 above that the type of social media the students are exposed to has significant positive influence on their English Language ability. This is established with the mean value of 36.2292 and standard deviation of 4.0331 for social media type and mean of 47.8882 and standard deviation of 6.2358 for the English Language ability, thus given a t-value of 13.205. Based on the decision rule, and mean difference of 11.659, we therefore accept the null hypothesis which states that the type of social media the students are exposed to has significant positive influence on their English Language ability. This is in line with the work of Albert (2015) which stated that the effects of social media on English language ability can undeniably be viewed from both online and offline. Although language is always an ever-evolving tool, the advance of social media has appeared to speed up this process.It has caused us to learn a new language and now be able to discern between text speak and proper grammar. We have adapted and learnt to be more concise, using sentence fragments and short-forms. Through extensive use of social media, our interpersonal skills have changed, impacting our face-to-face communication and social skills. We have adapted and learnt to be more concise, using sentence fragments and short-forms. Through extensive use of social media, our interpersonal skills have changed, impacting our face-to-face communication and social skills. However, knowledge of social media communication is now a necessary talent to possess. Merging the online and offline worlds Being adept in online communications and offline interactions is important for a variety of reasons, be it business, education or social purposes. However, competency in both does not come easily to everyone. 4.6 HYPOTHESIS V H05- To checkmate the social media has no significant influence on English Language competence and performance Table 4.6 Computation table for hypothesis V VariablesNo of CasesMeanStd. Dev.t ValueDfSig. (s. tailed)Checkmating of social media30 35.16673.8979 9.972 98 000English Language Competence Performance 70 50.1310 6.1031 Significant at 0.05 level DECISION It is clear from table 4.6 above that checkmating of the social media has significant influence on English Language competence and performance. This is established with the mean value of 35.1667 and standard deviation of 3.8979 for checkmating of social media and mean of 50.1310 and standard deviation of 6.1031 for the English Language competence and performance, thus given a t-value of 9.972. Based on the decision rule, and mean difference of 14.9643, we therefore reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis which states that checkmating of the social media has significant influence on English Language competence and performance. This is in line with the view of HYPERLINK https//www.edutopia.org/users/rusul-alrubailRusul Alrubail (2015) which says that As an English teacher, a writer, and a mom, I am always worried about the repercussions social media will have on my kids critical thinking, writing and personal academic communication skills. But I had to pause and think. We worry about social medias impact, but impact itself doesnt necessarily mean negative impact. I needed to remind myself that the use of social media by students can either have a positive or negative effect. QUESTIONNAIRE ON EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON ENGLISH PROFICIENCY A CASE STUDY OF A SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL IN OGBA, IKEJA L.G OF LAGOS. Dear respondent, This questionnaire is designed to obtain information on the above research title, and the questionnaire is meant for purely academic purpose. You are implored to please cooperate by responding to the items contained in the questionnaire. Please, be assured that all information supplied shall be kept secret. Thanks in anticipation. SECTION A DEMGRAPHIC DATA OF PARTICIPANTS 1. Age (a) 8yrs 12yrs (b) 13-17yrs (c) 18-22yrs (d) 23yrs and above 2. Sex (a) Male (b) Female 3. Do you operate on any Social Media (a) Yes (b) No 4. If yes, which of the social media does you operates (a) Facebook (b) Twitter (c) Instagram (d) Whatzapp (e) Others 5. How long do you stay on social media per day (a) Less than 1 hour (b) 1-2 hours (c) 3-4 hours (d) 5hours and above SECTION B INSTRUCTION Please read carefully and tick in the appropriate column the response to each items as follows STRONGLY AGREED (SA) AGREED (A) DISAGREED (D) STRONGLY DISAGREED (SD) S/NITEMSSAADSDSocial Media And English Language Communication Skills1Social medial helps my spoken English2Social media changes the way people communicate and share information3social media improves the way people interact globally4Social media improves my knowledge about new terminologies in English5Social media helps vocabulary developmentSocial media language style and students writing skills6Social media influence my way of writing7Social media provides accessible tool forhelping students to work together to create their own meaning in academicsubjects8Social media broadness students knowledge and connectedness 9Social media introduces students to modern writing pattern and techniques10Social media language style is influences students mode of writingSocial Media and Academic Performance of students in English Language examinations11Social media exposes students to abbreviations and ungrammatical spellings which latter have negative impacts on them during examinations12Social media contributed to mass failure of students in English Language and other English related courses or subjects13Social media encourages examination malpractices in schools14Social media aids wastage of students time that should be wisely invested in academic and profitable.15Social media encourages the use of fowl languages and cyber bullyingType of Social Media and English Language Ability16Social media contributes to students success in English language17The type of social media students exposed to determines his/her success in examinations18Some social media influences students positively without any constraints19Social media sites has been recognized as one of the most important resource avenue for education today20Students enjoy Facebook, Whatsapp, twitter and instagram more than any other social network.Social Media and English Language Competence and Performance21Social media improves English Language communication skills22Social media helps my spoken and writing of English language23I derive most of the terms I use from social media24Students are only exposed to the fun and entertainment side of social media25Social media improves English language competence and achievement 6P- 6P- 6P- 6P- 6P- 6P- Y, dXiJ(x(I_TS1EZBmU/xYy5g/GMGeD3Vqq8K)fw9
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