?.?.???.?.?. – ?.?.???.?. 2017/18
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? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?.?.???.?. (?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????) 2017 – 2018 ??? ?.?.???.?.?. (??????? ????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????) ?????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??? ?. ???????? ???????.

? ?????? ??? ????? «???????????? ????????? ??? ??????» ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? (Software) ??? ????? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ?????????? (Web sites), ????? ??? ?? ???????? ?????????????? ??????, ??? ???? ??????? ???????.
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?? ????????? ??????, ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ???????????, ???????????? ? ???????? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ?????????. ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ????????????, ?? ?????????, ????? ?? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????. ???????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ?????????? ???? ??????, ???? ???????????, ???????????? ???????????, ???????????????, ???????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????, ???. ?????, ???????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????1.

???? ?????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????. ??????, ?? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ???????????, ???? ???????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????? ????????????? ???????. ??????, ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ????????, ???? ?? ????? ???????, ?? ??????????, ? ??????, ? ???????????, ?.?. ?? ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????????, ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? ?????????????? ???????. ????????, ???????? ??? ???? ???????????????? ??? ???? ???, ??? ???? ???? ????? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ??? ??????????????1.

? ??????? ???????, ????? ??? ??? ???????, ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????. ???? ????, ?????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????. ??? ????????, ?????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???????. ??????, ??????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????????. ??????, ????????????? ? ?????? ??? ??????? ? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????. ?????, ???????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ?? ????????????? ????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ???? ???.

?? ??????? ??????? ??? ? ??????? ???? ??? ???????????? ?????????
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?? ??????? ??? ??????????????? ????????? ????? ???? ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????? ????????????. ?? ??????????????? ?? ??????????????? ??????????? ???? Ivan Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, John B. Watson ??? B. F. Skinner ???????? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ???? ?????? ?????, ?? ???????? ??????????, ??? ?? ??????????????, ????? ??? «????? ?????» ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????????. ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ???? ?? ????????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????. ? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???????????-????????????. ?? ??????????? ????????? ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????. ?????? ?? ??????? ?????????? (???? ?? ??????????) ????????? ??? ???????????? «??????», ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????????2. ? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ???????????. ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????/ ??????????? (conditioning). ? ????????/?????????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ??? ????????? (interaction) ?? ?? ??????????. ? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ???????????. ? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????. ????? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??? (???????? ??????????, ????????????, ?????????, ???.) ????? ?????????????. ? ????? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????? ?????????3.

?? ?????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????. ? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????, ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ????????. ??? ???????? ????, ???? ?????????? ??? ???????, ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????????????? – ?????? ? ????????, ??????? ?? ??? ????????. ???? ????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???? ???????, ???????? ?? ???? (??????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????) ??? ????, ??? ???? ? ??????? ????????? ?????. ????????? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? ??????? ???????????, ??? ??? ???????????????? ?????????? (B. F. Skinner) ?? ?? ????????? ????????? (R. M. Gagné).

?? ????????? ???????????, ??????????? (tutorials) ??? ????????? ??? ????????? (drill and practice), ???? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????. ?? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???????? (???? ????? ? ???????? ???????, ? ????????????? ?.?), ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????, ??? ???????? ??????????. ?o ???????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????????? ?? «????????? ???????? ?????». «???????? ?????» ????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? (hard-wired) ???? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ????????? ?? ??? ??????-??????. ?????????? «???????? ?????» ?????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? (electronic books), ?? ????????? ????????? (tutorials) ??? ?? ????? ????????? ????????? (Multimedia). ??????, ? ??????????????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????????, ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????, ???? ?????????? ???, ???? ????????, ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????2.

????????? ??????? ??????? – ???????????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ? ????????????????? ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??????????, ???????? ?????????? ??? ??????. ? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????, ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ??????, ? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????? (?? ?????? ?????? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ??? ?????). ? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ??????, ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????????? ?? ?? ??? ?????, ???? ??? ?? «????????????» ?? ??? ????? ???? ??????????? ???????? ?????.

? ?????????????? ??? J. Piaget ?????? ??? ? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??????. ? ?????? ??? J. Piaget ????? ?????????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????????????, ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ? ???? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ?????, ??????????, ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ??? «???????». ??? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ???? ???.

? J. Bruner ???????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???????????? ??????. ?? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????? (???????, ?????, ???????? ??????????) ???? ??? ????????????? ??????????? – ?? ?? ???????, ?? ??????, ??? ?????????? ? ?? ????????. ? ???????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ?????, ????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ??????. ? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ????? ? ????????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ?? ??????????? ????? (????????????? ?????????). ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? Bruner, o ????????????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????????, ??? ???????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????: ? ??????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ??? ? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????, ??? ????? ? ??????? ???? ????????????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????2.

?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ?? ???????? ??????????????: ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??????, ????? ????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ?? ????? ?????????? (??? ????? ?????????? ?? ???????????? ?????????), ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????????. ? ??????? ????????, ??????????? ????????, ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??????. ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???????, ??????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ???????. ?? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????, ??? ????? ??? ???????, ????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????, ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??????. ?????, ?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ???????????, ???? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? (???? ??? ?????????) ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????????????? ??????????, ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ? ?? ???????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??????.

? ?????????? ??? ????????????? Logo (??????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????????) ???????? ??????????? ??? S. Papert, ? ?????? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? J. Piaget ?? ???? ???? ????????? ?????. ?? ???????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? (???? ????? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????????? Logo) ??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????????? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ???????2. ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? (computer based laboratories), ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? (?? ?????????? ???????? ???????????? – ???????? ????????? ????????????), ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? (educational robotics), ?? «??????? ?????????» ???????? ??????????? (Intelligent Tutoring Systems) ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????, ?? ????????????? (Simulations), ?? ??????????? (micro- worlds) ??? ?? ????????? ???????????????.

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? ??????, ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????, ??????????? ???? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? (??????, ??????????, ??????????) ??? ?????????? ????????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ?????, ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ???? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????????? (activities). ?? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ????????? ?????????????, ?????, ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ????, ?? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????????? «????», ???? ??????? ???? ?? ???????? ???????, ???? ??? ????? ? ????? ????????????? ??? ??????????????. ???? ?????? ?????, ? ?????????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ??? ????????? ???????, ???? ????? ? ???????????????, ???? ??????????, ?? ???????? ???????, ????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????.

?? ??????? ??? L. Vyotsky ????????? ???? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??????????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? (? ???????????) ?????????: ? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ????????????? – ???? ??? ????? ?????. ????, ? ????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ????????????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ????? ????????? ??????????.

?? ??????? ??? ?????????????? (activity theory) ??? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????? (situated cognition) ??? ??? ????????????? ?????? (distributed cognition) ????? ???????? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????????????????? ??? ?????????????????? ???????. ????? ????? ??? ?? ????????????????????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????? ???????????, ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ?????????????.

?? ???????????????????? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ????????????? ?????????????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????. ???????? ???????? ???? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????????????????? ???????. ??????, ??? ?? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ??? ???????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????2.
??? ??????????, ?? ????????? ???????? ????????????? (concept mapping), ?? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ????????, ??? ???????????? ?? ?????? (??? ?????????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ? ??? ???????? ???????? ?????), ?? ???????? ???????????????, ?? ??????????? ??????, ?? ?????? ?????????, ?? ???????? ???????????, ?? ????????? ????? ????????????? ????????????.

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????????? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ??????. ??????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????. ?? ????????????? ??????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????????? (Video on Demand, Skype, e-mail, chat) ????? ????????? ??????????. ?? ????????? ?????? ????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ?? ???????? Web 2.0 – ???? sites ??? ???????????? «?????????? ?????????» ??? ??????????? ?? wikis, blogs ??? ??? ????? ????????? ???? ??????.

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????????? ??? ??????????? ????? ????????????, ???? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ????? «???????????????» (??? ????????, ????, ?????????? ???????????????????? ???? ??????), ???????, ??????????, «????????», ?????? ?????????, ???????? ???????????, ?????????????? ????? ? ????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????. ??????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ???????? ??????. ????????? ????? ??? ?? online ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ???????????? ????????????? ????. ????????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????????? ? ??????? ?????????, ? «????????» ??? ???????????, ? ????????, ? «??????» ??? ??????????? ??? ? «????????? ???????» ???, ? ??????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????, ? ?????????? ???????????????, ????????? ??? ???????????.4
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???????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????????
? ???????? ?????????????? ? Virtual Reality (VR) ????? ??? interface ???????? – ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????????. ????? ??? ?????????? ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ?????? interface ??? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ???????, ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????.??? ???????? ?????????? (VE) ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ? ??????? ??? ?????????? (Kalawsky, 1993). ???? ? ?????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???? interface ????????-?????????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??????. ???? ?? interface ???? ?? ????? ????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????. ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? interface ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????. ?? ???? ????????? ??????????????? ???????????? ??????? ?? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ??????????????? ??
1 .Immersive VR, ???? ? ??????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? Head Mounted Display (HMD),
2. Desktop VR, ???? ??????????????? ???? ??? ?????,
3. Projection-based VR, ???? ? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????,
4 Mirror worlds, ???? ?? VR ??????? ??????????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???????? ??????????, ?? ??? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ?????.

? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??????????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? (input devices), ?? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???????????. ????? ? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ??????????? – ????????? (immersion) ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????????.5 ?? ???????????? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????? ????? ???? ???????????. ?????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ??? ????????????, ???? ??????, ??? ????????????? ??????????????.4
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?? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????. ????????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ?? CD-ROM ? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ????, ?? ?????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????????????????? ?? ?? ??????. ??? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????: ???????, ??????, ???????, ???, ??????, ????????? ?????? ???.. ?????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????????.5
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?? ??????????? ???? ??????? ???? ???????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ???????, ????? ???????, ???????? ????? ??????? ???.). ???????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ? ??????????????, ???????? ?? ????????????, ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???. ??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ???? ???????, ?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????????.

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????? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????????. ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????? ??????????? (??????, 2001). ?? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????????. ???????????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????????????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????. ?????, ????????? ?? ?????????? ?????????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????.5
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?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????????? ?? ?? ????????? 50 ????????????? ??? ????? ??? ???????????????, ?????????????? ?? ????. ?? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????, ????? ???????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ????????? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ????? ???????. ?????????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ???. ? ????? ????? ??? ?/? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????????. ? ???????? ????? ??? ?/? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????. ?? ?????? ??? ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????, ????? ????????? ?? ????????????? ????? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????. ?? ??? ???????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????, ????? ???????? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????????, ?????????? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??? ? ????? ???? ?????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ????. ?? ???????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????????? ?????????, ????? ??? ?????, ? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ???????. ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ???? ??????????? ??? ???? ????????????? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????. ?? ??????? ?????????????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ? ??????? ???? ??? ??????. ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?? ??????, ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ????, ?? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????????, ???????????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????. ? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???????, ???????????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???, ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ???????????? ??????????.52
?? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?? 156 ?????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????, ???? ??? ?? ????????????, ??? ? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????. ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ??????????????, µ? ????????? ???????? ?????????? ??? ????, ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????, ????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ??? «??????? ????????» ?????????? ??????. ?????????, ?? ??????µµ? ??????????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? µ????? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? µ? ??? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????, ?? ?????? µ??? ??? ????? ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ??????????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??????? ????.53
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?? ?????? ??? ??????????? 93 ???????? ?? ?????????? ??????????????? ??? 6 ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ???, ? ??????????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????????? ???? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ???? ??? ??????? ????. ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????? ?????????? ,???? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ?????? ?????, ?? ??????? ???????? ???????. ????????? ????? ? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ??? ????????? ? ?????? ??? ? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????. ?????????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????????????? ? ????? ??? ?????????, ? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ???????????. ?????? ?????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????, ? ???????, ??? ? ??????????? ??? ????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??????. ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????: ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????-????????? ???????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????. ?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ?????????, ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????, ????????? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????. ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ??????. ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ???????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????????, ?? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??????56.

??????, ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? 38 ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?. ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????????, ?????? ??? ? ??????????? ??? ????????????? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????????????????? ??? ????????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???, ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???, ????? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???. ?? ???????? ????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ????? ???????????. ???????? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?????????????? ??? ???, ???????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ????. ????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ?. ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?????????????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ???????57.

???? ????? ??? ?????????? ????, ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????, 21 ????????????? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? (1? & 2? ?????????? ??? 3? ?????) ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ????????? ????????? ???? ?????????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????, ???? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ??????????. ? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????? ??????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ??????????, ???????? ??? ?????????, ????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????????? ???? ??? ?????????????? ??? ????????????58.

????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????, ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ????????? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????, ??? ??????????? ???????????, ?? ????? ?????????? ??? ??????????????, ????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ???????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????????. ??? ?? ???????????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??? ???? ???????????. ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???????, ????????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????. ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ?????????, ??? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????. ??????, ?????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ????. ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ????? ????, ?? ???? ??????????? ?? ???????????????? ??????????? ???? ???????????? ??????????. ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????????. ? ?????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??????????? ????????. ??? ???? ????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ????????? ???????????? ????????. ?? ??????????? ??????? ????????? ???? ??? ?????????? ????????????, ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ????????????, ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??? ????????????? ?? ??????? ????? ??? ???????. ?????, ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????????? ????? ????????? ??? ???????59.

?? ???????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ???????? 872 ?????????????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???? ??? ???????????, ????? ??? ????????????, ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?????????, ???????????? µ?? ????? ????????? ??????? µ? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????. ??????? 1 ????? 2 ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ??? ??? ?????????????????? ??? ???????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ???????????-????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ????????. ? µ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????µµ???? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????, µ? ??? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ? ????????????? ??????? µ? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????. ??? ??? ???? µ????, ?? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ???? ???????????, ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????, ????? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????????. ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????????, ???????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????, ??? ???????????? ??????????-?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??????????60.

???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????, ? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???????????. ?? ??????, ???? ??????????? 92 ????????????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??? ?????, ?? ???????? ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ???????. ?? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ??????????? ????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ??? ???? ???????????. ????? ??? ??????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????. ????????? ???????????? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???????????.61
?? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????, ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ??? ?????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ????????????? ??????? (?.?.?.). ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????????????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ??? ?????????????? ????? ??? ???. ????????, ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?????????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ?.?.?., ?? ???????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????, ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????. ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ????????? ???????????, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????????????????? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????, ?????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ??????????. ?? ?????, ????? ???? ????????? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ??? ???, ???? ? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????? ??? ? ???????? ??????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ??????????? ????. 62
???????????? – ??????????
? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? µ? ??? ???????? ??????? ??????????? µ??????, ??????? ??? ???????????? µ?????, ?????????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???????? µ?????? ??? ????????? ??????? ???????????? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ????????? ???????µ???? ??? ???????. ???? ??????? ? ?????????? ????? µ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??? µ??????63.

? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ????? µ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ????????? ??????????, ? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????????. ????? ????????, ??? ?? ????????????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????. ??? ????? ???? ?? ????????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????????????, ???? ????? ?? ?????????. ?????? ?? ?????????????? ????????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ???? µ? ?? ??????? ????????? ??? ???, ??????????????? ???????????? ??? ???? ?????????? ??? µ?????????? ???????????, ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?????????? ??µµ????? ??? µ??????. ???????????, ??????, ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???????????? ????????????. ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???????, ?? ????? ???????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????. ?? ??????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? µ? ????? ???????????? ??? ??????????, ??? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ????????-µ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??????µµ???? ???????, ??? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ??? ??????????? µ??? ???? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? µ? ????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????????.60
?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????????, ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ??????????????????? ??? ??????????????? ???????. ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????????? ????????? ???????, ??? ??? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ????, ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ???????????? ?? ????????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ?????? ???. ?? ??? ???? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????, ???? ? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????? ????????????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????.  ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????, ?????????? ????  ?????????? ? ???? ???????????? ??? ? ???????? ???? ???? ???????????? ????????????? ????????. ?????? ? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ? ?????????????????? ??? ?? ??? ???????,  ??? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??? ?????????? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???????? ??? ???????????? ???? ????????? ????????64.

??????, ????? ???????? ? ???????, ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??????????. ???? ? ??????????, ??????, ??????????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ??????. ? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??? ???????? µ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ???????????? ????????? ??? ?? ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??????? ?? µ??????? ???????????? ????????, ??????????? ???? ??? ????????? µ??????? ????????????? ???? ?????????? ????? ??? ????????. ????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ????????????? ???? ???? ??????????? ??? ? ?????????? ???? ????????????? ??????????????, ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????????, µ? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ??? ??????????? ??? µ????????? ??? ??????.65 ??????, ??? ?? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????????? µ???µ??? ???????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ??????µµ? ??????? ????, ???? ???? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ?? ??? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ???????µ???.66

????????????
http://www.smartedu.gr/educational-software/16-what-is-educational-software????????? ????????, (2014), ?????????? ?’ ????????
??????????? ???????, (2015), ??????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????
????? – ??µ??? ???µ??????? ??? ?????????? (???), (2008), ???µ???????? ????? ??? ??? ???µ?????? ??? ????????????? – ?????? 1 (?????? ?????)
O???????? ???????, (2007), ???????????? ?????????, https://economu.wordpress.com/50. ?????? ?., ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??????????
51. ????????? ?., ??????? ?., ??????????? ?., ???????? ?., ??????? ????????????? ??? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????
52. ???????? ?., ???????? ?., (2016), ? ?????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????????? – ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????
53. ??????????? ?., ???????? ?., (2005), ?????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ????????????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???????????? ???????????? ??? ???????
54. ??????????? ?., ??????? ????????????? ???????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ????????????
55. ??????????????? ?, ??????? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??????????
56. ?????? ?., ??????? ?., ????? ?., ?????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ?????. O ????? ??? ???????? ???????. ?????? ??????????
57. ???????????????? ?., ??????? ??? «????-???????» ??? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?. ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ??????????
58. ????????? ?., ?????? ?., ??????? ?., ??????? ????????????? ??? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??????? ???????
59. ????????? ?., (2007), ?????????? ??? ???? ??????????? ??? ???? ??????????. ??????????? – ?????????? – ?????????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????????
60. ???µ???????? ?., ????? ?., ?? ??? ???? ??????????: ???????????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??? ?????????????? ???????????
61. ???????? ?., (2008), ??????? ??? ??????? ??? /??? ???????????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ??????????
62, ?????? ?., (2016), ??????? ??? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????????? ??????????? ??? ???????????? (?.?.?)
63. ?????? ?., (1996), ? ??????????? ???? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????, A????.

64. ???????? ?., (2015), ???????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ????????????: ??????? ??? ??????????
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