4

4.4.2.1 Total recycling in Namibia – value addition processes for plastic
Plastics undergo various processes during recycling as highlighted in the table 4.18.
Four major processes of value addition for plastics were recognized, that is recovering, processing, manufacturing and selling. At the time of study, seven companies (53%) were involved in recovery activities of plastic. Only one (7%) company was involved in pelleting to produce raw materials; three companies (20%) were into manufacturing of plastic products like pipes and plastic packaging as well as selling to whole sellers. Figure 4.5 shows a diagrammatic illustration of the value addition process for plastic as given by Botswana Recycling Guidelines of 2012.
Table 4.18: Value addition by Company for Plastics in Namibia
Company Value Addition Processing

A, F, N, L,H, G,N Recovery
• Collection,
• sorting according to type, texture, color
• cleaning (smelly ones e.g. fish for plastics wrapping)
• crushing, cutting/shredding, chipping bottle caps
• balling
• transportation to final destination

D processing
• collection
• Chipping, crushing, cutting,
• Washing and drying
• Heating and Melting
• molding injection/ molding / extrusion
• Pelleting (chipping and packaging )
• Selling

B,C,H Manufacturing plastic pipes and packaging
• Injection molding/Blow molding: extrusion, injection and injection stretch
• Packaging
• Selling

Source: research data

Figure 4.6: Simplified schematic diagram for plastic recycling
Source; Botswana Recycling Guidelines, 2012
4.4.2.2 Value addition for Paper
Paper undergoes varying processes during recycling. The different processes carried out in Namibia are highlighted in the table 4.19.

Table 4.19: Value addition by Company for Paper in Namibia
Company Processing
A,N Recovery
• Collection
• Sorting
• Shredding
• Baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
Only two companies (A and N) were involved in paper processing that is recovery.
4.4.2.3 Value addition for Glass Bottles
Companies A, N and F were into glass bottles recovery. It undergoes varying processes during recycling at different companies in Namibia. The different processes are highlighted in the table 4.20.
Table 4.20: Value addition by Company for glass bottles in Namibia
Company Processing
L Transportation
• Glass bottles
A,N, F Recovery
• Collection
• Transportation
• Sorting
• Crushing
• Baling
transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.2.4 Value addition for Cans
The main processes of value addition for cans are highlighted in the table 4.22
Table 4.22: Value addition by Company for cans in Namibia
G,L Transportation
• steel and aluminum cans
A,N, F Recovery
• Collection
• Transportation
• Sorting
• Compaction
• Baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
Five companies were involved in recycling cans. G and L were involved in the transportation of these cans while companies A, N and F were involved in recovery and the other value addition processes identified in table 4.22.
4.4.2.5 Value addition for Scrap Metals
Scrap metals were reported and observed to undergo various processes. These are summarized in the table 4.23.
Three companies (E, J and N) were involved in scrap metal recycling, which involved separating metals from the mixed scrap metal stream or the mixed multi-material waste stream.
Table 4.23: Value addition by Company for Scrap Metals in Namibia
Company Processing
E,J,N Recovery
• Collection
• dismantling
• sort
• Shredding
• Compaction
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.2.6 Value addition for E-Waste
Only one (1) company K in Windhoek was involved in e-waste recycling at the time of study. The company was involved in all the processes highlighted above plus transportation to South Africa for further processing.
The e-waste recycling process was observed to be highly labor intensive. According to literature, e-waste recycling involves the following further steps: use of over-band Magnet, non-metallic and metallic component water separation. Components e-waste retrieved are sent to recyclers of plastic and metal.
Table 4.24: Value addition by Company for E-Waste in Namibia
Company Processing
Trans-world (E-waste) Recovery
• Collection,
• sorting,
• dismantling,
• cutting
• baling
• transportation to final destination

Source: research data
4.4.3 Benefit chains associated with recycling processes.
Recycling is known to have a lot of benefits according to literature and the study sort to establish the situation relating to Namibia. The researcher posed the question: “What are the benefits associated with recyclable raw material wastes in the area you are involved in.” Responses of individual companies are summarized in the table 4.24.
Table 4.25: Benefits of Recycling
Benefit Company
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
Environmental
Reduces waste dumped at landfill ? ? ?
Promotes sustainable development ? ? ? ?
Cleans the environment ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
saves natural resources ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
waste reduction measure ? ? ?
reduces pollution ? ? ? ? ?
Economic
creates employment, ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
source of income ? ?
defer investment on landfill ? ?
creates and promotes new businesses ?
Cheap raw material ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Cheaper goods ? ? ? ?
Cost saving on wastes removal operations ? ?
Local economic development ? ?
Potential Source of revenue ? ?
Social
source of livelihood for the poor ? ? ?
Source: research data
The table 4.25 summarizes the views of the different participants regarding recycling benefits.
Table 4.26: Participants View of recycling
Benefits Number of Respondents %age
Environmental
Reduces waste dumped at landfill 3 20
Promotes sustainable development 4 26.7
Cleans the environment 9 60
saves natural resources 8 53.3
reduces pollution 5 33.3
Economic
source of income 2 13.3
defer investment on landfill 2 13.3
creates and promotes new businesses 1 6.7
Cheap raw material 8 53.3
Cheaper goods 2 13.3
Cost saving on wastes removal operations 2 13.3
Local economic development 2 13.3
Potential Source of revenue 2 13.3
Social
source of livelihood for the poor 4 26.7
creates employment, 14 93.3
Source: research data
Table 4.26 shows benefits that recycling in Namibia has. Ninety three (93%) of respondents highlighted that the industry creates employment, while 53.3% revealed that it saves natural resources, 53.3% pointed out that it is a source of raw materials and 60% noted it keeps the environment clean.

Figure 4.7: Benefits chains of recycling solid waste
Source: research data
Figure 4.6 gives an illustration of the cause and effect diagram to represent primary and secondary benefit chains of recycling. Secondary benefits can further be sub-divided into further indirect benefits.
4.5 Local network linkages in the industry;
local and regional backward and forward operational network linkages in the industry in Namibia are presented. Information gathered showed that most companies had both local and regional linkages.
4.5.1 Forms of linkages
Table 4.26 shows forms of network linkages in the industry from secondary sources.
Table 4.27: Forms of linkages
Institution Recycling Companies Linkages
Government institutions Recycling Companies
Education information flow
Promotional information flow
Waste Generators Raw material flows
Promotional information flow
Waste Pickers Raw material flows
Promotional information flow
Transporters
Corporate World transport and logistics
Promotional information flow,
Funds flow,
Education information flow
receptor material linkages,
transport logistics linkages
Partnership
Academic Institutions Research information flow
Source: research data
The predominant forms of linkages are material flow, and promotional and education information flow. Due to the infancy of the industry the later are very important linkages.
4.5.2 Local Company Linkages
Local linkages are considered as linkages between companies in Namibia. Table 4.27 shows the entity’s backward and forward linkage players and the form of linkage that exist between them.

Table 4.28: Local backward and forward linkages of companies
Company Backward Linkages Form of linkage Forward Linkages Form of linkage
A

Municipalities, Households, Industries, Commercial Retail and Wholesale companies,
Government institutions, banks, schools, colleges, universities, Waste Management companies, waste pickers, Mines, Fishing Companies Promotional, Information flow,
land resource and
Material flow
Funds flow
Company D,
Transport companies and
Landfill companies
Raw Material flow
Waste flow
Transport logistics

D Company A, Households, Fishing Companies, plastic packaging c Raw Material flow
Hardap Plastic Distributors, North West Plastics-Ondangwa, Ogowa Vehicle Company O, H, C, B Raw Material flow

E Government, Trans-Namib, Nampower, Namdeb, Oshakati, Mines, SMEs, trolley-man, Shipping Companies Raw Material flow
none Raw Material flow

K Windhoek-Households, Industries, Institutions, individuals, corporate World-Private companies promoting the Green Movement, FNB, Samsung, NEC Raw Material flow
Company O, landfill sites, Company E, Tsumeb Customs Smelters,
Raw Material flow
Manufacture products flow

B Government, Company O, Company D Okahandja, virgin RM from Overseas Suppliers, Financial Institutions, Company M, Company A Raw Material flow
information, financial Markets-shops, wholesales,
, Manufacture products flow
Funds flow
N Keetmanshoop, Karasburg, AisAis, Company NWR, Gondwana Lodges, Nerkatal Dam Raw materials flow
L Individuals, Wholesalers and retailers, NWR, Companies M , G, educational institutions, O Company A Raw material flow
C Company D Raw materials flow Markets-shops, wholesales,
New products flows
F Landfill sites, open space picking Material flow Company A, Coca Cola

I Waste Management Divisions, Scavengers, WM companies
M Namibian Populace, WM companies and recycling companies, institutions e.g. schools, Corporate World Education information flow
Promotion information flow local Education information flow
Promotion information flow
J Local businesses, trolley-man, farms, Raw material flow Company E Raw material flow
O All Companies Education information flow
Promotion information flow All Companies Education information flow
Promotion information flow
Source: research data
Information gathered showed that all companies had local linkages in one form or the other.
4.5.3 External Linkages
Table 4.28 shows external linkages for the companies under investigation. The backward linkages are as presented in table 4.27. For confidentiality purposes the actual companies will not be given but only cities and countries of operation is provided.
Table 4.29: Forward regional and international linkages
Company Forward Linkages Form of linkage
A Regional: S.A
companies in Cape Town, Durban ; JHB,
International
Company Finland Raw materials flow

Partnership
E Regional: SA scrap metal Companies,
International: Asian Markets- Vietnam, India Raw materials flow
K Regional: SA, Raw materials flow
B Regional: SA, Angola, New products flows
N Regional: South African Markets,
International: Asian Markets Raw materials flow

C Regional : Angola, Botswana, Zambia, Zimbabwe New products flows
F Regional: SA Raw materials flow
J Regional: SA Markets
International: Asian Markets Raw materials flow
Source: research data
Most companies had regional and internal linkages in terms of raw material flow, but a few had information flows and resources flows (human resource, transport, machinery, financial, partnerships) linkages. For raw material flows, regional links were mainly with South Africa and international link with Asian markets. For new products, the links are mainly regional with SA, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Angola. The researcher was not privileged to get the name of recipient companies in these countries. Figure 4.7 shows the local, regional and international material flow linkages networks.

Figure 4.8: Recycling linkages: Local, Regional and International
Source: Research data

4.6 Summary
Research data from interviews, observation and document search was presented in this chapter according to the thematic areas of the study. Data was presented in the form of tables, figures and descriptive narratives.
The study established that recycling is still in its infancy, faced with challenges such as weak legislation resulting in low participation levels. Plastics, papers, glass, cans, scrap metals and e-waste are the materials that were being recycled at the time of study. Recovery and pre-processing were the main recycling activities that were executed in Namibia with further specialized processing and manufacturing completed outside the country. Only plastic had complete recycling in Namibia.
Data showed that recycling was undergoing through the transformation stages with private sector involvement becoming more entrenched in the industry that was previously dominated by the informal sector. Establishment of Material Recovery Facilities at the source was seen as a great step towards promoting the industry and creation of employment. Linkage networks in the industry were viewed as very important by all actors for survival.
Discussion of these findings follows in the next chapter.