PRACTICAL RESEARCH 1
The Role of Time Management for FEU Student
Athletes’ Academic Performance
11 HUMSS 7
Arellano, Allanah Pearl P.
Balayan, Cyrele Anne S.Beltran, Matthew Gabriel C.
Bugarin, Althea Leana O.Crisostomo, Kenan Sedric M.Mahinay, Julia Isabel G.
Marron, Mia Grace C.Navalta, Ralph Patrick R.
Tan, Samwel Rasheed B.Velasco, Maxine Joey
Viray, Hilary C.
Table of Contents
Background of the study
Time manage is necessary for a successful life, for it is not uncommon for time management to be associated with both academic and job performance. (Liu, Rijmen, MacCann, ; Roberts, 2009; Macan, 1994). With the responsibilities students face, it’s difficult to manage ones time. Students have long before struggled from their responsibilities within and outside their academics, for instance a student-athlete needs to balance their sports and academics which in turn takes up most of their time and are left to either rest, train or study. Due to these instances, knowing a form or type of time management that is effective and easily adaptable for students will be greatly beneficial.
The general intent of this research is to know the time management skills of Far Eastern University athletes to carefully assess their abilities in performing tasks, with focus ontheir academics and extra-curricular activities such as sports and the social aspect of their lives.This research will mainly identify and assess the different factors that affect the present time management skills of Far Eastern University Athletes. This research yearns to identify on how the researchers can expose the importance of time management and its role to the athletes and assist them in improving and maximizing theFar Eastern University Athletes’ Time management skills.
This research reports thorough findings of researchers that proved time management as a task that some would seldom do, how it can be changed and ways to replace old habits.It is said that before one person can do an effective time management, the person has to understand first time management and know his or her habits to manage to divide the tasks properly in order to do things equally (Obijiaku, 2015). If a person does not fully understand His or Her own habits, it may cause some difficulty in adapting to a certain discipline of managing their time.
Statement of the Problem
Managing our own time ineffectively has an effect in the academic performance of the students, Time management is extremely important, especially when it comes to university students because it helps boost their grades and enhance their productivity (Laurie ; Hellsten, 2002). However, most of the time students face problems like task aversion and uncertainty, so they start to procrastinate because they lack organizational skills (Khan ; Nasrullah, 2015). In this research we aim to answer questions such as:
What is Time Management for these Student-Athletes? Why would it be important?
How does it affect their Academic Performance?
By answering such questions we can increase the academic performance of students and help lessen the stress that comes with the responsibilities that they hold. These problems can be solved by having proper discipline, creating new habits and keeping a certain mindset, by doing these actions it will increase the efficiency of ones actions and save time for other activities. Optimization of a person’s time or adoption of new, more-effective ways of time management is crucial to maximize time. In this proposal, the alternative ways are analyzed for their feasibility and steps for an effective implementation in real life.
Review of Related Literature
In Japan, A man named Obijiaku (2015) conducted a study about examining the importance of effective time management to students and finding out how they manage their time as they study and work at the same time. The researcher interviewed 6 international students from different countries at Haaga-Helia UAS Porvoo campus. The idea behind choosing respondents from different countries was to get the general views of different students with different background concerning time management. And also their experience or rather, what they know about time management and if they see it as an important factor as a student (Obijiaku, 2015).
The researcher asks the respondents to define time management. This question aims to know what students think about it and also how important or useful they find it for students. It is showed in this study that for students, time management is the ability to manage task and make schedules to finish all the tasks. It is said that before one person can do an effective time management, the person has to understand first time management and know his or her habits to manage to divide the tasks properly in order to do things equally.
This research also showed the causes of ineffective time management. One of these causes is procrastination. Students keep on procrastinating on a certain task because of their lack of interest in that particular task. The researcher concluded that to avoid procrastinating students must practice developing interest on a certain task. “When someone is interested in something, they stick to the plan and make sure that they get things done but when they are not interested, they keep on skipping the task and that understanding makes it easier to complete tasks when they are clear and one can easily understand” (Obijiaku, 2015).
This study also included suggestion from the students for the implementation or improvement of time management. Based on the researcher’s interview the following ways that can help students to improve his or her time management skills: awareness on self-abilities, self-planning (scheduling tasks using a weekly planner), setting priorities, using reminders for tasks and activities, making out time for socialization, regular class attendance, follow up on class activities, making out time for self-relaxation and setting deadlines. Obijiaku (2015) concluded that the more you work towards your tasks, the more you save time and also become willing to do the next one but the less you work, the less impact will be achieved.
While in another case study, a research emerged about Student-athletes having a dual role as both students and athletes that have certain responsibilities to both roles (Yu, 2011). They are not just a student and athlete but also a son or daughter who has responsibilities to do at home too. Being a student-athlete is not easy because they should know an effective way to balance their time in fulfilling the roles that they have. (Yu, 2011) conducted this research to know how student-athletes prioritize athletics, academics and their social life and how they balanced their time accordingly. The researcher made an online survey that was answered by athletes in Trinity College and she also interviewed 6 coaches of the athletic teams.
In this research, it is proven that student-athletes budget their time better in season than out of season. It is reported that students-athletes’ time is more organized in season than out of season. One of the coaches noticed that student-athletes do better when they’re in season because they are forced to organized well their time and procrastinating when they’re out of season.
This study also proved that athletes prioritize their academics and athletics above their social life. For student-athletes, academics and athletics are more important than their social activities. As per one of the interviewed coaches, they have this called 3S’s in their team which means school, sports and social life. The coaches feel that social activities are not as important as academics and athletics and how they expect their players to feel the same way (Yu, 2011).
The researcher also found out that females are more self-driven than males. Male student-athletes felt that academic requirements were more helpful for them than female who thinks that males need the academic requirements than they do. Females spend more of their time to academics and spend less time to sports in and out of season compared to males. Female athlete-students seem to be more self-sufficient when it comes to academics than males; but as a whole, student-athletes prioritize academics and athletics higher than social life (Yu, 2011). Additionally, every student should know how to apply time management. A lot of students complain that they do not have enough time to do the tasks that are assigned to them. Sometimes, they are not able to do it before the deadline. Time management is extremely important, especially when it comes to university students because it will boost their grades and enhance their productivity (Laurie ; Hellsten, 2002). However, most of the time students face problems like task aversion and uncertainty, so they start to procrastinate because they lack organizational skills (Khan ; Nasrullah, 2015). Time management is essential to students because it enhances their academic performance. Every student should have time management ability. They should know their goals, priorities, and they should know how to manage their time. Here time management is only possible through self-motivation; performance, ability and motivation (Brigitte et al., 2005).Now let’s go back toone of the things that hinder our productivity regarding time management which is procrastination. Procrastination is the act of delaying and postponing something, there are students who frequently complain to their teachers that they do not have enough time to do the tasks that are assigned to them. The students usually point out that there are many classes, projects, reading assignments, exam preparations and etc. that require constant dedication over a long period of time (Rafael Garcia and et al, 2004). Some students procrastinate when studying for examinations. Procrastination as it was previously described, is knowingly delaying tasks scheduled for completion and lacking the motivation needed to finish those within the given time frame. (Haberman, 2011). It has been suggested that procrastination factors are situational or can occur as a personality trait, which is characterized by an individual’s predisposition to engage in negligent behavior (Sene?cal, Lavoie, ; Koestner, 1997). Procrastination might have a detrimental impact on a student’s life due to the multitude of examinations, term papers, and projects during his or her scholarly career (Janssen, 2015). Procrastination also has a harmful impact on academic achievement including lower grades, cheating, and lower grade point averages (Beck et al., 2000).
It is something that acts as one of the major problems in students nowadays. Dr. Piers Steel, one of the foremost researchers on procrastination suggested an explanation to the problem, the “temporal motivation theory” from his book, The Procrastination Equation, in which he had suggested that a someone’s drive to complete a task can amount to the equation: Motivation=(Expectancy Value)/(Impulsiveness*Delay). Expectancy Value is the term that represents how strongly someone believes that he or she would be able to complete a task this term has an inverse relation with procrastination, if one believes confident on what he or she is doing, the expectancy value will be high and it would increase the motivation to go to work and when its low, one is more likely to procrastinate, Value is the reward/s one gets for completing the task, as well as how pleasant or unpleasant the experience is, Impulsiveness is how susceptible one is to distractions on other things and is directly correlated to procrastination, the less one is able to resist impulsiveness and distractions, the less likely one will procrastinate, and finally, Delay acts as the amount of time of the task and when will one get the reward for completing the task, the longer the delay of the reward, the more likely one will procrastinate. All in all, the model acts as a guide to pinpoint why one procrastinates. Further studies from Britton, B. K.,;Tesser, A. (1991) in the dissertation from the Effects of time-management practices on college grades, Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 405–410. Time management has been or always will be a popular research that many researchers have agreed upon that intellectual achievement takes time. Britton and Tesser stated in their research that time management and its influence on the achievement in scholarly education that researchers have separated studies wherein time management is included in a qualitative research or excluded to prove it effect on improvement to any level of students.
Britton and Tesser (1991) theorized that a student that is familiar in time management or whom he or she adheres managing their tasks to what their goals and sub goals are; more likely, would succeed or achieve in educational or intellectual value, thus, having higher grades. In support of their (Britton’s and Tesser’s) theory in achieving intellectual accomplishment is through a comparison with a computer’s central processing units or cpu’s; cpu’s have a limited resources in which are compared to students who also has limited knowledge. A survey was held that observed and questioned the students whether they have a day to day planner or if students feel that they have control on their time and as they observed people or students are likely to be compared to a large mainframe computer and have large amount of work to prioritize and that each task are different through length, complexity and deadlines and as observed they discovered that 67% are more likely to respond “to manage time more effectively”.
Britton and Tesser observed that modest people are given to be more beneficial in attaining a lifetime of achievements if they focus on reachable goals in limited domain over a Period of time. In contrast to the survey, Britton and Tesser observed a small set of people who do not prioritize their goals and tasks and therefore seem disorganized and least likely to achieve a goal or task.
It was aforementioned that people or students, in particular, are alike to “large mainframe” computers that have multiple or several tasks and users to satisfy, in which, students are to please instructors with several tasks that determine their grades. From a grade point average it would be influenced by time management and can be found in the aptitudes of the students using the SAT or Scholastic Aptitude Test. Britton and Tesser test consists of 90 male and female students that are enrollees to their university who will answer a set of questionnaires about time management that have 35 items and the response to the questions are always, frequently, sometimes, infrequently and never. There are three components; the first factor is “Short-Range Planning” because in a short run a task would be planned within the day or within the week and if a person or a student acing this particular factor would mean they organize within a day. The second factor identify as “Time Attitudes”, students that achieve a high grade in this factor are indicated that have the ability to manage their time or uses them productively. The third and last factor would be the “Long-Range Planning” wherein people or students who ace this specific factor would mean setting goals for an entire year and/ or following certain or specific dates or being a well-organized person. The first factor, Short-Range Planning, has the total variance of 16%; the second factor, Time Attitudes, consisted of 11%; the third and last factor, Long-Range Planning, has the variance of 9%. In the perspective of Britton and Tesser that when a person answers one of the questionnaires there is a certain bias in which a person or a student who received a high score in the time management questionnaires present themselves in favorable light; although, it may not lead to a proper score in the questionnaires but that being said it may help increase grades in school. Furthermore, the questionnaire responses and grades are spurious or what it purports to be. Although, the common factors are “Time Attitudes” and “Short-Range Planning” which could be developed in school that helps achieve good or positive grades. “Short-Range Planning” could predict grade point averages whereas “Long-Range Planning” could not because of the multiple possibilities it can predict such as unpredictable events in available time and/ or priorities. These factors could have implications to the relationship between achievement and time management that would need further research.
A similar study was conducted on a website called “blogcengage” on the Effects of College Life on a Students’ Time-Management Skills
According to the article of this website, college students quickly come to realize that requires of them, including papers, assignments, readings, and lab work, not to mention the family, job, and social responsibilities they must continue to uphold, make it especially important to plan and use their time well.In the spring of 2015.The people of the site asked the college students a number of questions about their time management habits, and this was the result.
The first question was “Is it really more difficult to manage your time in college?” what the people from the website did was to start a vote system, somewhat surprisingly, the votes were split almost in half, with a slight majority saying that yes, they do find that it’s harder to manage their time in college.
The second question was “Have you ever change your method of time management now that you’re in college?” a small percentage of students said that they don’t struggle more in college with time management, an overwhelming majority said that they have changed their methods of managing their time.
The third question was “What differences have you felt between managing time in high school and college?” they have received the full responses of “it’s easier in college” to “nothing, it’s the same” to “managing my time in college is ten times more difficult”
They stated that most of the students noted that college has pushed them to improve their time management skills. Such as an article from blog.cengage.com that the effectual utilizing time and time management requires a lot of procedures and good quality planning behaviors. Time management and organization plans can increase ones productivity and have a good quality of works, but there’s a lot of hindrance to do it. According to blog.cengage.com stated that college students said that they do find that it’s harder to manage their time in college compared in high school. Having a poor time management struggle with the deadlines, the coursework is hard and requires a lot of focus and energy and students invest a lot of time in classes. Motivating one’s self with self-discipline can help you it can lessen your worries and take the ownership of their responsibilities in order to finish the works. Others have to change the way they manage the time because it’s not effective and they struggle more, but still some students who did not change on how they manage time. They said that their life experience prepared them to manage time easily and effectively while they’re in school. Some starts to plan the time with a bit of flexibility, they create schedules, make notes that need to attend, listing down special family times, appointments that makes things organize. Failure to manage time to complete and submit requirements can create problems for retention and achievement and it can be a major source of stress and it creates pressure. Students who feel overwhelmed can start a productive task. If student feel anxious it can be helpful to identify one task they can do immediately to break the circle of inaction. Starting own early stage deadline for completion of works is now standard advice.
Knowing what’s Important and prioritizing is one of the best way to have an affective time management considering a goal and a sub–goal (Britton & Tesser, 1991) and an article from the site “alnmag.com” stated that completing the “important” is the “main” goal of time management, but prioritizing can help a student identify their foremost goal that helps planning and could create an easy lifestyle or proper management and a student would need to set their limitations to attain balance of their sub–goals. “alnmag.com” also said that college students requires a lot of papers, readings, and aside from that the social responsibility that consumes a lot of time and energy, college students lead to change their time managing skills when it’s not effective, some students use a planner and serves as a reminder or a “to do list”, It helps and writing down the due dates to look forward and meet the deadline and can give a good product on time.
Attention and focus on work is needed don’t allow unimportant details or anything that can break your focus. Time management is not easy but knowing what are your priorities you can do it, time management skills can increase your productivity.
Aforementioned about productivity another background is from Valerie P. Jackson, MD “Time Management: A Realistic Approach”. Time management is necessary is for a successful life, it is not uncommonly for time management to be associated with both academic and job performance. (Liu, Rijmen, MacCann, & Roberts, 2009; Macan, 1994). The aim of our research is to find the most effective ways for students to manage their time easily. A review of “A Realistic Approach by Valerie P. Jackson, MD”, gives us ways to have the most ideal ways for people (this will greatly apply for students as well) to handle their time effectively.
The small background research of Jackson, MD states that our body is in a constant state of work causing fatigue and disorganization and a loss of control that will lead in a decrease of our productivity. Anxiety as well as stress contributes to the loss of our precious time and energy. There are many books out there that we can read about time management skills but unfortunately the readers tend to feel guiltier for the lack of finishing a task. But Morgenstern (2004) stress that we must take small steps and do things that is comfortable for you. Here comes in “The Basic of Time Management”, were in 1.) Set realistic goals, 2) get organized, 3) delegate, 4) relax and recharge, and 5) stop feeling guilty, plays the major roles in this list. But first we must know the two major enemies of time management which are procrastination and perfectionism. In procrastination, we tend to leave distasteful tasks for later that causes our anxiety level to rise and further delay doing said task. While in the case of perfectionism, some tend to do everything perfectly decreasing the chance of ever finishing their given task. Now this is the part were “The Basic of Time Management” comes in to play.
Dr. Valerie first gave out the setting of goals, make separate lists of your life time goal and weekly goal, compare them and in a third list write down the things that connect with your life time goal from your weekly goal. This will help you prioritizes your life goals while accomplishing your immediate tasks. Then next organization, the process of making a to-do list, planning and prioritizing your things. Be realistic on what you can do for the next day, week and month. Review your list daily or weekly because your prioritized goal will change over time, break big projects in smaller ones so you can easily manage it, stress the urgency of a task and lastly avoid multitasking. Then delegation cannot be avoided as well, give a task to other people who can do it better or easily. Why waste time in doing a certain task that other can do better. Don’t feel guilty over handling over a task, think of it as a form of “leadership” training in your practice. After all the hard work comes the relaxation process. It is important to balance work and relaxation, take time to relax with family and friends. Get back your strength to tackle all of your important tasks again. Lastly from Dr. Valerie’s list is the Ditching of Guilt. Etta Pisano(2001) stressed that in time management the most yet difficult to get rid of is guilt. Guilt leads to stress and anxiety that increases in time we feel this way. Guilt causes a task to take longer further enabling the completion of said task. If it is hard to tear away from stress, depression and anxiety, don’t hesitate to get professional help. Having a realistic time management can improve our productivity in school, work or other areas. Following these steps will help improve our brain in working on both professional and personal things in our life.
One of the suggested methods on time management is the Pareto principle, also known as the “80-20 rule”, (Kiremere 2011) by Vilfredo Pareto who noted this on 1896. On this, it is stated that, for many occurrences, about 80% of the events come from 20% of the causes. (Bunkley, N. 2008)
The original observation came was the connection between population and wealth. He carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that the similar distribution applied.
To use the Pareto principle, Dr. KellTremayne, a PhD in psychology and owner of the website “Mytimemanagement”, had suggested three steps for everyday use.The first is to identify the key result areas, he expressed that, in today’s world, it is not unusual for one to encounter a dozen tasks that needs ones attention, so he suggested to have something that keeps in mind the goals that are needed to be accomplished by oneself. He stated that any incoming information or request for one’s time need to assessed against one’s goals and objectives. He said that once this is down, one can assign something as a goal. The next step he identified is to use the Pareto Principle to set priorities. He said to put a limit on the tasks one has deemed important. The final step he stated is to make time for the deemed important activities. In which he said to make systems of scheduling that one can follow to protect the priorities from the less trivial matters.
Applying these could help an SHS student from their day to day considering the many requirements needing completion from several subjects that sometimes has the same deadlines and/or in the same week. Time management could help a further development to the academic mark of a Senior High School student in the Far Eastern University.
In this partResearch method, Data Collection and tools, Population, sampling method, Respondents andData analysis.The type of research used was the Qualitative method. Qualitative researchers aim to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. The discipline investigates the “why” and “how” of their decision making. The researcher will also examine the phenomenon through observations through statistical analysis.For the purposes of this research, in depth interviews were used. In depth interviews are personal and unstructured interviews, whose aim is to identify participant’s emotions, feelings, and opinions regarding a particular research subject.
As far as data collection tools were concerned, the conduction of the research involved the use of semi-structured questionnaire, which was used as an interview guide for the researcher. Some certain questions were prepared, so as for the researcher to guide the interview towards the satisfaction of research objectives, but additional questions were made encountered during the interviews.
Some sample questions used in the semi-structured questionnaire includes:
Question 1: What do you think of Time Management as A Student-Athlete?
Question 2: How do you manage your own time as A Student and An Athlete?
Question 3: What are the factors that may render a Time management skill ineffective?
Question 4: Do you have any experience with ineffective Time management?
Question 5: What have you done to overcome these counterproductive Time management?Were they effective?
Question 6:How do you think can Time Management be improved efficiently?
Question 7: What are the main problems and Challenges of balancing Academics and Extra- curricular? What are the key advantages? What are these problems causing? Are they affecting other activities?
Question 8: What are the struggles that a Student-Athlete face in terms of social situations?(e.g. having a relationship and having commitments with other organizations)
The population are the Far Eastern University Student- Athletes, for they are an example of people who need to manage their time with their Academics, Extra-Curricular and their lives, the research sampling method that will be used in this study is random sampling to obtain a more scientific result that could be used to represent the entirety of the population.
The Respondents of this research will all come from a single location- the Far Eastern University Manila Athletes, specifically the randomly selected athletes of Volleyball, Basketball and multiple other sports. The Researchers chose the Student Athletes of the Far Eastern University because of their proximity and relation to the subject that is relevant to the study and also as it fits the time frame and resources of the researchers.
The Data Analysis used was aContent analysis was used to analyze the data which was gathered from personal interviews. A main advantage of content analysis is that it helps in data collected being reduced and simplified, while at the same time producing results that may then be measured using quantitative techniques. Moreover, content analysis gives the ability to researchers to structure the qualitative data collected in a way that satisfies the accomplishment of research objectives. However, human error is highly involved in content analysis, since there is the risk for researchers to misinterpret the data gathered, thereby generating false and unreliable conclusions.
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